There is a ear-consensus that most of happy people obtain social, agreeableness, outgoing personalities, as well as affirmative thinking and feeling about their sense of grasp, themselves and the future. They are also more likely to be cooperating, energetic and less likely to be depressed. Additionally, self- esteem, optimism, sense of control, social connection and personality traits are more important element to achieve happiness. Keywords: Happiness, Moscow s hierarchy of needs, top-down theories, bottom-JP theory, self- esteem, optimism, sense of control, social connection, personality traits
Philosophers and religious thinkers frequently define happiness is a kind of value, in terms of well-being, welfare, utility, living a good life, or flourishing, rather than merely as an emotion. Happiness in this significance was used to interpret the Greek Demoniac, and is still used in virtue ethics. On the other hand, happiness has found in scientific studies that it comes from dopamine adopting chemicals around the brain, which is a transmitter in the brain that controls the nervous system. These chemicals in the brain cause us happy and sad.
At the same timer happiness means different things to different people, so happiness comes from your expectations from being fulfilled. It can just occur for a short period of time. Confoundedly, Hong Kong is one of affluent cities. The Gross Domestic Product of Hong Kong is over 1. 6 millions Hong Kong dollars in 2007. Nevertheless, its ranking of Gross National Happiness (NH), a comprehensive evaluation of countries and regions that would emphasize on the spiritual and cultural aspects of NH over economic development is the lowest in Asian countries and regions.
An inverse correlation between NH and Economics has been found. It can clearly be seen that only the pursuit of economic development cannot meet the needs of civilization and social progress. In 5th January 2015, a 20 years old teenager committed suicide with excessive inhalation of gas in a house because of unacceptable academic pressure. It was reported that he often disputed with family and he was eccentric temperament. Theories of Happiness Mascots Hierarchy of Needs According to the humanistic psychologist Abraham Moscow (1 954), most theories of motivation are very limited.
Moscow put forward a theory based on a hierarchy of five needs. Psychological needs including eating, drinking, sleeping, mating and breathing are at the bottom level of the hierarchy, with safety needs above them to provide a stable environment. In the middle stage are social needs for belonging, love and affection from partners, family and group. Above that level, self-esteem, social recognition and personal worth are reflected in esteem needs, with self-actualization needs for discovering and fulfilling one’s potential at the top of the hierarchy.
Top-Down Theories Self-esteem. A more recent review affirmed that high self-esteem does lead to increased happiness. Bandmaster et al. , 2003). High self-esteem may be more useful for defending against negative emotions than for promoting happiness (Robinson & Compton, 2008). It is composed of four components: (1) feeling that one is accepted by others; (2) being the recipient of positive evaluations from others; (3) believing that one compares favorably to other people or to on?s ideal self; and (4) believing that one can initiate effective action in the world (Hewitt, 2009).
In addition, happier people might contract their self-concepts in more abstract terms, for instance, I am a cheerful errors, rather than use concrete terms that define the self by specific behaviors, such as “l feel happy when I watch my favorite TV’ show. ” (Updraft & Sub, 2007). Optimism. Generally, people who are more optimism about the future are happier and enjoy greater life satisfaction than others (Carver et al. , 2009; Rand & Cheapens 2009; Salesman, 2011 When faced with stress and challenges, optimism tend to use problem-focusing coping, realistic acceptance of their situation, humor and positive reframing (Can,’ere et al. 2009). For example, an optimist who loses his jobs might say, This will spur me to get a better, more satisfying position” instead of sinking into depressive self-pity. Sense of control. A sense of having personal control refers to a belief that one has the means to obtain desired outcomes and to avoid undesirable ones. Some researchers speculate that a need for control is the central motive that drives every other motive in life (Thompson, 2009). Social affiliation.
A need for social interaction may be innate to our species (Dinner, Shih & Lucas, 2003). The perception that one is embedded in supportive social relationships has been related to higher self-esteem; successful coping; better physical health; and fewer psychological problems. (Spinally &Taylor, 1992). Extroversion. Extroverted persons are interesting in things outside themselves, such as conversations and parties. Investigators initially thought the sociability com opponent of extroversion was the most decisive to well-being (Bradbury, 1969).
For example, studies found that number of friends was related to well-being such that the more friends one had, the higher one’s well-being (Skunk, Stock, Haring, & Witter, 1984). Agreeableness. Agreeableness refers to being honest; trustworthy; implant; cooperative; and modest. Persons scoring high On agreeableness are able to social and vocational situations far more successfully than those measuring low on it. Neurotics. Sometimes, low neurotics means high emotional stability. One facet of neurotics is the most important for subjective well-being: depression (Schismatic et al, 2004).
While low level of anxiety, anger and self- consciousness are important for mental health, the greatest impact comes from the absence of depression. Bottom-up Theory Money. Money can be associated with happiness if we use it to foster legislations with family and friends; enhance our competence in a skill or hobby; gain autonomy (Enemies et 2009). Using money to fulfill psychological needs, such as learning new skills and gain respect or autonomy, can increase positive emotion (Dinner et al. , 2010). Education.
A recent research analysis found that a college degree could increase the odd of being ‘happy” by about 37% (Yang, 2008). However, another study found that once an individual attained a middle-class income level, further education did not impact happiness in any significant way (Dinner, Sour Lucas, & Smith, 1999). Personal Analysis Every person has the craving and is innate to escalate the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization need. Regrettably, a man cannot do anything without bread and drink. Progress in a whole life is always interfered by failure to meet lower needs.
Life experience including divorce and loss of job may cause an individual to oscillate between levels of the hierarchy. In order to settle physiological needs, money is a necessary element but the least important in an individual life. It is sad but true that numerous people nowadays only focus on how to get more and more money but forget the original use of money that is just for bottom needs of hierarchy even neglect upper needs. Moreover, parents push up their kid’s education level as soon as possible like 2 or 3 years old to have a great start.
For me, education just satisfies safety needs that provide a predictable environment in a foreseeable future rather than take off children’s potential. Having people around us who approve and support us can have a very powerful effect on how we feel. When individuals feel they have social support, there are enhanced positive self-esteem, optimism and perceived control. Self-esteem is our worth on how contribute to a society no matter more or less. High self-esteem people are less susceptible to depression and anxiety; and to persist in the face of failure.
People who are high degree of agreeableness and consciousness with low neurotics can be self-fulfilling toward self-actualization needs. Discussion and Conclusion In the case I investigated, the victim was a secluded temperament teenager and often disputed with family. He could not endure the pressure from education or family and then committed suicide. Believe the reason that he only satisfied the physiological needs. When he lacked of self-esteem, social support and safety for a foreseeable future, everything for him was meaningless and there was no reason for survival.
So, I would like to advise him to do more volunteer work with friends or family if he was still alive because he can find out his worth to build up a high self-esteem through a downward social comparison that compare to oneself who is not as good. Also, he can establish extroversion and agreeableness traits and make more friends to achieve social needs. For time to time, the optimism will be created to resist depression. To sum up, human no longer just need to satisfy physiological or safety needs like thousands years ago, we also need to fulfill the needs above these needs in Mascots hierarchy needs.