Without her wisdom, the researchers would not have gathered enough data as quickly as they had, and the research would have taken much longer to finish. Her assistance is greatly appreciated. Of course, there would have been absolutely no investigatory science project if it weren’t for the researchers who had worked very hard alongside their other school homework’s/projects. Without their extra input, especially on their vacant times, the IP would not have been as thorough as it is. This research had been a group effort, indeed. And every one of the researchers had their own contribution, which made this IP easier to conclude.
The researchers would also like to thank the supervisor of the investigatory project and science teacher, Ms. Reexamines B. Sanchez, for giving her input and corrections. If it weren’t for her help, this IP would have turned out disastrous and untidy. And without her, the researchers would not have learned about the wonders of food preservatives and the different effects of various food additives, as well as the chemistry behind it. Abstract This study was conducted to discover the most effective and advisable food preservative between sugar (sucrose) and salt (sodium chloride).
The process f food preservation used was curing, and was applied to a fish, instead of meat, for a faster result. After soaking two fishes in salt and sugar respectively, time yielded the conclusion. Results revealed that the fish soaked in salt withstood bacteria accumulation better and had a more favorable odor than the sugar-soaked fish. Difference between the two was significant, for the fish soaked in sugar had emitted a somewhat foul smell and looked slightly inedible than it’s salted counterpart. Overall, the researchers were able to ascertain that salt was, indeed, a better preservative than sugar.
Table of Contents Title page 1 Acknowledgement 2 Abstract 3 Table of Contents 4 List of Figures 5 Introduction 6 Statement of the problem 7 Hypothesis 7 Objectives 8 Significance of the study Scope and limitation 8 Definition of terms 9 Review of Related Literature 10 Methodology 1 1 Results and Discussions 11 Conclusions and Recommendations 13 Appendix 14 Bibliography 16 Personal ………. 17 List of Figures 1. 1 Salt and sugar comparison table … 7 1. 2 One week result comparison table…………………………………………………………………. 2 1. 3 Structure Of Structure of Introduction Salt and sugar are the most common seasonings in the world. For centuries, these have been sought out and scavenged for. With these food additives being ubiquitous nowadays, we take for granted their importance in our modern society. Can you imagine a world where salt and sugar does not exist? Our food would lose their taste and our appetite will be less than satisfied. Long ago, seasonings were as valuable as gold. One of the reasons Magellan led a legendary expedition was for spices and seasonings.
Yet one of the more pertinent reason as to why these are so valuable is because of one thing – their preservative properties. Salt and sugar in Western Africa was more valuable than gold centuries ago, simply because it preserved their meat and fish during long hours of travel by sea. Merchants, traders and travelers kept abundance of them like they did water, because it Was necessary for profit and survival. This brings up the topic of preservation. Preservation was practiced before the common era, approximately, 1000 BCC. The earliest practice of preservation was done by drying.
But now, one of the most common ways of preserving food is called ‘curing’, in which food such as meat or fish is soaked in salt and/or sugar. Food preservation can be done in different ways, but this research serves the purpose of providing a cost-free, easy way of lasting your meats and fishes for days. There are many food preservatives, but there are two in particular which is readily available in every residence. Salt and sugar. This research will uncover which of the TV is better and more beneficial for your food and for your health.
Statement of the problem This study seeks to determine the better preservative between salt and sugar. While both have preservative qualities and can be used to aid foods to last longer, there is always a question of which to use. The research will answer which preservative is more effective, with factors including the smell, appearance and overall duration of preservation. Hypothesis salt Sugar Table salt removes water and creates a solute-rich environment. Osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth. Salt also slows oxidation process, preventing the food from spoiling quickly.
Sugar preserves food by lowering the water activity. If the water activity is 85 or less, spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can’t grow. Adding sugar to appropriate levels can prevent bacterial growth. Fig 1. 1 Salt and sugar imprison table As seen in the table above, the process of both seasoning in preservation is quite similar. More specifically, the way both undergo osmosis to achieve their given task – lengthening the shelf-life of foods. However, this is what piqued the interest of the researchers. Given the impeccable similarity of the two, more thorough research was required.
After delving further into preservation-related articles, books, and websites, researchers have uncovered an uncertain decision of whether one is better than the other. However, after much skimming, perhaps salt is preferable than sugar. Salt is more commonly used in preserving meat, and cooks/chefs are more inclined to use sugar in preserving fruits. There must be a correlation as to why this is. In other words, researchers are uncertain but somewhat convinced that salt is better for preserving foods such as fish, beef and other meaty products. It is much more used in comparison to sugar.
But a proofed-conclusion is needed to make an absolute recommendation. This is why performing an experiment is advisable, wise and logical. Objectives With this study, the researchers hope to discover once and for all the more effective preservative between sugar and salt. Since there are no clear answers yet, the researchers want to provide it and assist people to determine which to use in their meats in order to prolong it’s edibility. Since preservation with the use of either salt or sugar is cheap and effective, having a definite contrast, comparison and knowledge between the two can help to even lessen the cost.
It helps to know which is better for the food, as well as for the health and welfare of those who consume it. By this, people can be rest assured in their choices. This is the core objective of the researchers. Significance of the study As stated in the objectives, the researchers desire to enable consumers to have a clear choice between sugar and salt for the use of meat preservation. This saves both money without forsaking health benefits. Because by using the wrong preservative and/or applying too much quantity can lead to startling hazards for the well-being of people.
Scope and limitation Scope This research covers the basics of preservation by using the most common method of fish preservation, which is called ‘curing’. Salt and sugar are compared by experimenting on two fishes and observing their progress in the pan of a week. Limitation This research did not test other meat and/or fruit products. Meaty products such as beef or pork would have taken longer to experiment and would have been more expensive. It also does not delve further into other types Of preservatives and/or preservation methods.
Curing is the most easiest method of preserving food, particularly fish, hence the researchers decided to use that particular method instead. Definition of terms Food preservation – the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility or nutritional value and thus low for longer food storage. Curing – refers to various food preservation and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, nitrates, nitrite or sugar.
Osmosis ? a process in which salt or sugar draws water out of the food to be preserved over the semi- permeable surface of the food, from one solution into another, thus making the environment inhospitable for most bacteria and mold. Lasciviously – is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lasciviously. These are “friendly” bacteria that normally live in our digestive, urinary’, and genital yester without causing disease. Lasciviously is also in some fermented foods like yogurt and in dietary supplements. Ubiquitous – constantly existing, being every,’here or commonplace.
Edibility ? whether a food is good for human consumption. Shelf-life – the period of time a stored food will be edible before its expiration. Putrid – an unbearable, foul smell. Equilibrium ? a State Of rest or balance due to the equal action Of opposing forces. Review of Related Literature Food preservation is the application of techniques to prevent or minimize undesirable changes in food. Food spoilage can be prevented and reduced if application of food preservation techniques, skills, and principles will be taught to and learned by common Filipinos.
The basic knowledge and understanding of the different tools and equipment are also important before attempting to process food for future use. Through food preservation, wastage of food can be reduced. The principles underlying the methods of preservation are the prevention or delay of microbial decomposition by keeping out microorganisms, prevention or delay of self-composition of foods, and prevention of damage caused by external factors such as insects, rodents, dusts, fumes, odor, fire, heat, or water damage. Curing is the cheapest and easiest way of preserving food.
The preservative removes water from the food as it penetrates the tissues. With this method, the food becomes harder, thus preventing spoilage. Two ways of curing are adding salt to food or soaking it in brine solution. (Edit Tamping Rafael (201 0), Technology and Livelihood Education, (pig. 120)) Protection of foods from microbial spoilage using salt (usually sodium chloride) or sugar (usually sucrose) has ancient roots and is often referred to s salting, salt curing, corning or sugar curing. Curing may utilize solid forms of salt and sugar or solutions in which salt or sugar is mixed with water.
There are several ways in which salt and sugar inhibit microbial growth. The most notable is simple osmosis, or dehydration. Salt or sugar, whether in solid or liquid form, attempts to reach equilibrium with the salt or sugar content of the food product with which it is in contact. This has the effect of drawing available water from within the food to the outside and inserting salt or sugar molecules into the food interior. (Michael Aurelian (2005), Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking, and Curing, (pig. 3)) Methodology In performing this experiment, the researchers used two fresh fishes bought from the local wet market, 1 to 2 cups of salt and 1 to 2 cups of sugar. They prepared the needed materials, which included two small plastic containers, cups, and the all important salt and sugar. After gathering all the materials, the researchers briefly cleaned the fishes (for hygienic purposes, of course) and proceeded to coat the first fish with salt. The second fish was handled the same way however, sugar was used instead. Afterwards, the researchers also sprinkled salt and sugar to the respective containers.
They placed the coated fishes to their proper places and closed the lids. Time was the only factor left. Results and Discussions After an interval of time, the researchers opened the lids of the containers and found that the salt had removed the water from the fish. The water sloshed around the container, and the researchers threw the water away and inspected the salted fish. It had no foul odor. The sugar-cured fish, on the other hand, had little difference. Little to no water was visible in the container as opposed to the salted counterpart.
Results showed that sugar in fish did not drain the water out like the salt did. In addition, the fish seemed to emit an undesirable odor and looked inedible. The result of the one-week experiment is presented in the next page in table format: Salt Edibility (SALT / SUGAR) Saturday The fish’s appearance and smell is normal. The freshness is still retained. The fish’s appearance and smell is normal. The freshness is still retained. EDIBLE / EDIBLE Sunday Slight water has moved out Of the fish. The smell and appearance is normal. No water has moved out of the fish. The smell is slightly foul.
Appearance has not changed. EDIBLE / INEDIBLE Monday The salt has completely removed the water from the fish. The smell is slightly foul. The fish emits a putrid smell and the appearance has a slightly greenish color to it. INEDIBLE/ INEDIBLE Tuesday The fish has completely spoiled. The smell is putrid. The fish has completely spoiled. The smell is even more putrid. INEDIBLE / INEDIBLE Wednesday The fish is beyond inedible. It has expired. The fish is beyond inedible. It has expired INEDIBLE / INEDIBLE Thursday It has expired The fish is beyond inedible. Friday Fig 1. 2 One week result comparison table
Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion All-in-all, the results are clear. Salt is, in fact, much more effective than sugar. The proofed conclusion is that salt is more advisable over sugar, and should be used in preserving any fish one desires to keep. Despite lasting for only two and a half days, the salt-cured fish had lasted far longer than its sugar- cured counterpart. Recommendation Salt can be used as a preservative for other meats, as well. Sugar is also an effective preservative, but research shows that it is effective in the fruits area rather than in the meat area. Appendix
Salt and Sugar (in reference to curing) Table salt (sodium chloride) is the primary ingredient used in meat curing. Removal of water and addition of salt to meat creates a solute-rich environment where osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth. Doing this requires a concentration of salt of nearly 20%. Fig. 1. 2 Structure of salt The sugar added to meat for the purpose of curing it comes in many forms, including honey, corn syrup solids, and maple syrup. However, with the exception of bacon, it does not contribute much to the flavor, but it does alleviate the harsh flavor of the salt.
Sugar also contributes to the growth of beneficial bacteria like Lasciviously by feeding them. Different factors of food spoilage Spoilage of foods which is decay or decomposition may be due to microbiological, microbiological, chemical, and physical causes. Microbiological factors include yeast, mold, and bacterial activity. Microbiological factors include insects, rodents, and other animals. Chemical factors are those catcalled by enzymes of tissues. Physical factors are such changes caused by freezing, burning, drying, and pressure. The chemical effects of salt as a preservative
Sodium chloride or table salt is the main ingredient used in the preservation of meats. Salting meat draws water out and tying up the water within, making it unavailable for chemical reactions that cause decay. High concentrations of salt also interfere with the replication of microorganisms such as bacteria. Salt curing frequently uses salts containing nitrates. Nitrates act as antioxidants in preserved foods, preventing decay and spoilage through oxidation and free radical generation. However, high consumption of preserved foods containing nitrates may be linked to a higher risk of cancer.