Example Reflective essay

Over course this essay, assertion be critically analyses and reflected upon, to gal n perspective way which your personal o thick holds Sway over outcomes observe Initially Concept examined evaluated, highlighting conceptual Issues arising. Following this, essay ask at evidence rounding pessimism’s impact upon o outcomes, both tangible intangible Lastly, final assessment statement elaborated.

Defining pessimism not concept; amongst nomenclature assigned phenomenon, there exists substantial variation defining distinguishing who at it truly pessimistic. As such, simple definitions for such concepts often understate complexity associated with concept value definition lost. However, dispositional is widely accepted being construct encompasses person’s expectation misfortune bad outcomes, leading towards apprehension future events creation sense foreboding fear.

Strategic management essay

To develop a professional repair workshop around the Auckland, with excellent service and high client retention, this can be easily implemented in private or authorized workshops. 2. 2. 2 Vision Our vision is enhancing our customer needs which in turn will expand our business. We want to become the most trusted auto-repair, washing service and sales of spare parts centre in Auckland. 2. 2. 3 Goal By giving customers a high-quality service with more reasonable prices rather than our competitors.

Giving solutions to problems that are faced by our business Merging with as many manufacturers and suppliers. Up-to-date skill knowledge. Maintaining good service and personal care we offer to our customers. Establishment of our sector with highest quality of service possible. 2. 3 BUSINESS MODEL Customer value Proposition Figure 2 Profit Formula Figure 3 (Snyder, Body Business Shop, NOVO 1 , 2005, PI-3) Figure 4 Key processes Figure 5 2. 4 Critical success factors Businesses that are good in achieving margins, particularly in distribution and advertising of prices have a good growth.

Successful businesses specialize in maintaining safe operating conditions. Strong businesses are ready to stock and correct cost accounting systems. It is vital to own access to a talented working man power as vehicles have become additional technologically advanced and complex. This section makes superior client service is very vital. If customers ought to return to you for service again, business need have knowledge related to manufacturers. The size and location of the business is essential for its growth. (University, pacified. Org, March PA) 2. Competitive advantages Quality: Our quality service exceeds the normal standards as the recruited technicians are skilled Process: There are teams divided in service, while servicing each team will be dividing the work. Layout: We have a process layout in service procedures, as to complete service faster. It maximizes efficiency and quality of services with reduced waiting time. Supply chain: Purchasing is finished with sensible negotiations and that we have a competitive advantage by building sensible relationship with vendors who will offer sensible quality and reasonable materials, components at short notice.

Scheduling: we will able to provide service in the least possible time by using the human resource efficiently. Inventory: main factor is keeping the inventory to a minimum level and expecting a high turnover. Through this our holding cost is reduced. Without affecting the quality of inventory, allowing parts or equipments to be replace quickly. (GHz, Knock Consumer knowledge, Cot 09, 201 0) 2. 6 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS 2. . 1 SST PEP analysis Social Factors: Social factors on the auto repair are: Customers have a keen kick On technical skills and services that are being provided.

The demographics of bound customers and what they require specifically they require to purchasing service varies. Big family having a 2 or more number of vehicles they will go for a one time stop repair. Changes of the service pattern in the auto repair are also due to the customers having problems due to recessions in different mature markets. Mostly all Auto repair Businesses rely on performance of handling goods and services on their desired locations. Technological factors Technological factors include ecological and environmental aspects and the rate of technological change.

Technology can affect costs, quality in auto repair business. Internet has a vital role for marketing the business via web, according to J. D. Power and associations 59% of customer’s survey through web for the best repair shops. Economical factors Gross Domestic Product (GAP), income, interest rates, unemployment rates these all are basic economic factors that are being described here. It describes all the Government taxes, price of existing resources, buying capacity of people. Regarding to New Zealand, transportation is the major activity of economical survey.

And the population is also increasing at faster rate, thus the consumption of automobiles will be going at their peak. The population has an increasing rate till 2050. Our workshop has to grasp as many customers for our workshop revenue. Here there are many competitors and mostly developed workshops in this advanced economy market. Figure 6 (L, Transport blob. NZ, Seep 5,201 3) Above the car ownership in Auckland and vehicle maintenance has been grown by 32% since 2000, as this survey shows repair shop has the biggest growth in recent years. Political environment

Political environment in auto repair has a list of all law and regulations and safety measures that can apply to private owned workshops. Regulations, conditions and laws must be fulfilled by automobile repair shops for sustaining the business Laws and licenses have here main purposes. L. To protect companies from unfair competitions. . To protect customers from unfair business practices. Ill. To protect interest of society from unrestricted business behavior. The licenses and permits that are requires to start a auto repair shop l. Business operating license: if the business is inside the city itself, then operating license s needed.

II. Employer Identification number: A businesses acquire tax identification number from the department of revenue or taxation. (Reuters, Smelliness’s. Finland, (n. D. ), Pl -2) Ill. Business name permit and land use permits IV. Health department permit V. Sales tax licenses: for selling spare parts. VI. Special state-issued occupational/ professional licenses. (Reuters, Environmental factors Environmental factors for an auto repair shop refer to variables and conditions around the shop that affects its working and performance, which cannot be controlled.

A company/shop cannot change the environmental actors, but can control it without affecting its performance. Environmental factors for a workshop basically refers to the surrounding conditions which will be indirectly are affected by working and performance. There are no major environmental factors with the servicing and repairing of vehicles. Proper ventilation must be kept on the engine servicing areas, oil spillages. The oil after service which are kept after completing maintenance and servicing of vehicles are sent for recycling or to the treatment facilities. 2. 6. Porters five force analysis Threats of Entry: (High power) If marginal profits of business are high, expenses are low and still demand is more than our business will have good revenue. Threats reduce the new coming companies not to enter into the market. These new entrants can change the complexion of this market and drive profits down as additional choices for existing customers. These new entrants will change the complexion of this market and drive profits down as more options exist for consumers and selling prices are reduced. Our repair shop will have fresh entry, by attracting customers away from established businesses.

Technology can allows smaller repair shops to compete with bigger firms. Supplier power: (high power) Suppliers are powerful as they that consume firm profits, like selling spare elements at a high price. Information technology can amendment the character of the link and balance power among customers and suppliers. Information technology will amendment the character of the link and balance power among buyers and suppliers. Our automotive vehicle look can cash in of the components info and native distributors to induce offer of spare components once required.

As a result, suppliers have high power to the demand and needs of the auto repair retailers. (And, Dorian Group. Len, June 16,2015, Pl -2) Buyer power: (Low power) “Under this market conditions, suppliers decide the price as they are many in market if there are many, and they need additional power after they purchase the specific goods, product or service. ” (And, Dorian Group. Len, June 16,2015, PI-2) Under this market conditions, if there are many suppliers and one buyer, the buyer sets the price, The negotiations powers of automakers are undisputed.

When buyers have less option they have less power. Customers are very price sensitive; they don’t have much buying power. Our auto shop has huge customers having numerous thoughts; we’ve got to include what they require to urge them into business. (And, Dorian Group. Inc, June 16,201 5, p 1-2) (Auto Repair Calgary, Feb. 05,2012) Threat of substitutes: (High power) In porter model, substitute refers to other services and parts of other repair shops. The prices increase or decrease is affected by substitute maintenance services.

As a lot of substitutes on the market, the demand becomes more optional as a result of customers has a lot of alternatives. Many substitutes may be available for customers, but mechanical skills and experience has his own value in auto repair shop. The high cost of maintenance repair will lead customer to find alternatives. The price of spare parts and replacement maintenance services has a larger effect on customers decision. Competitive rivalry (relatively low power) A larger range of competitive firms increase competition as a result Of additional firms competing for an equivalent customers and resources.

TO gain temporary advantage on competitors, just need to implement change of prices Our auto-repair can improve features or service, implementing new technology in servicing can also reduce our rivalry. Advantage of computerized systems will allow us to reach via web. Computerized systems will be used to track the services.

Thesis Statement essay

The Ignited States have a higher murder rate with firearms than Canada, even though Canada have the same amount of guns as the U. S. The violent history of Aimer IAC contributes greatly in the crimes presented in our society. Response: I agree with this because Canada has more gun control than the United State Canada has generally experienced far fewer crimes Of gun violence than the IS united States due to gun control. I personally think that the U.

S. Should look up north for a solution n to its firearms problems. Thesis #2: The media in America are more prone to violence than in Canada, as a result Americans are more fearful than Canadians. This leads to higher crime rates n the U. S. Response : I agree with this statement because the Canadians have fewer crime rates the an the united States. Also, they are not afraid to leave their front doors unlocked beck cause they don’t want to feel like they are trapped in their own home. Americans on the other hand lock all doors and fear that someone may come in and hurt them if their home is not secure lay locked.

Thesis The Second Amendment “Right to Bear Arms” is overused by Americans even when not needed, like in the case of Carlton Weston. People use this amendment a s the right to own weapons, believing that their weapons are protected. Agree with this statement, specially in the case of Carlton Weston. I understand and that us Americans have the right to bear arms but it doesn’t make sense to ha eve multiple loaded guns around your house if you have not been attacked. People don’t need more than 10 rounds in a magazine for self defense if they know how to shoot a gun properly.

This just wows how most Americans have a unhealthy obsession with firearms as well as how they live with fear d uh to the consumption of the media. Thesis #4: Although we rarely see white crimes in the media, minorities and blacks are made to be scarier than they are for two main reasons. First, They are seen as a wild g roof. But most importantly, they are always the ones depicted on the media causing crimes. I agree with this statement because when I watch the news or read news art clues online 90% of the time is caused by a black or a Hispanic person, rarely see o r hear a crime committed by a white individual.

Thesis #5: The high crimes caused by firearms are a result of how easy it is to access w paeans. If the government system were to put more restrictions on weapons, the crime e rates would go down. I disagree with this statement because by having the government system put ting restrictions on weapons, it would only affect the individuals who own guns leg ally. If someone really wanted a gun and wanted to commit a crime, all they would have to do is either steal it or get it from someone they know. Guns don’t kill people, people do! So, this rest ruction would not have any affect on them. Thesis #6:

Carlton Weston contributed to gun violence because even though the tragic incident of columbine he showed up in Littleton, Colorado and held a gun pro rally, aft re he was asked to cancel. His actions showed that he cared very little of families that were affect deed in that incident. Disagree with this statement because Carlton Weston did not promote gun violence nor did he force American citizens to buy guns and commit these crimes, he j just wanted us to have the right to bear arms. Even though he knew about the incident Of Cool imbibe and Bubble, he couldn’t do anything to stop the gun pro rallies since they were planned a yea in advance.

Thesis #7: Violence has increased due to the walkover’s program because it’s keeping parents away from their kids, which could possibly put a child in a situation w here they can obtain a weapon. Agree with this statement because if it wasn’t for this program the shooting of koala at Bubble Elementary would of never happened, the boy that accidentally shot a ND killed koala would of never been in that situation if he was being cared by his mother. Du e to this tragic incident Florida and other states have had recent changes in Welfare and Word k, child care, and Child Welfare Systems Thesis #8:

Most Americans are trigger happy, we have the highest crime rates of murder r S by firearm violence than any other country due to the media repeatedly forcing f ear in to us even though it may not be the truth, so they can have a great and interesting story to tell. I absolutely agree with this statement because this has happened multiple it mess In the past. For instance, the African killer bees that was supposed to migrate to America, the bola disease that was supposed to spread and the YAK bug that was supposed to cause mass chaos with our computer systems. None of these ever happened, but us Americans were still in fear.

Thesis #9: The media always bashes celebrities such as Marilyn Manson when horrific cry Nines are committed. Not once do they blame people who are actually in power such h as the President. Disagree with this statement because media violence is the increasing problem in modern society and the most popular and persuasive in entertainment. Children and young adults tend to get influenced by the media being video games, news, movies, and music. So, figure heads such as Marilyn Manson can be influential in an individual rather than the president. Thesis #10: The entertainment culture of guns is a direct result of death and violence in

America. If we had a strict US. Government that put a limit on the amount of v lenience shown, there would be less death and violence. Agree with this statement because the entertainment media shows off violent CE by making violent video games, music videos, and movies. This lets children and young adults believe that it is harmless and fun, while others may lead to aggression and VI lent behavior due to imitation.

Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic Case Study essay

Utilization rates were calculated as separate divisions and by the particular job title. To calculate the utilization rates for individual job functions, the number of total hours spent on the process was divided by the number of total hours available for work for the particular worker(s). Doing so, utilization rates were 74. 07% for clerks, 81. 83% for the main three nurses, 83. 42% for technicians, 75. 83% for radiologist, 57. 25% for the extra nurse, 110. 43% for the surgeon, 92. 24% for the senior resident, and 90. 04% for the cast technician (Appendix A).

Appendix A Similarly, to calculate the utilization rate for individual divisions, the number of total hours spent in the division was divided by the number of total available hours for that division. The corresponding utilization rates for the divisions were 67. 43% for reception/front desk, 69. 83% for radiology, 28. 63% for x-ray hand off, and 97. 57% for examination room (Appendix B). Appendix B Bottleneck & Capacity Constraints When looking to the bottleneck in the process, things to be considered where wait times and utilization rates.

Losing this logic, we determined hat there may be bottlenecks in the radiology department and the examination room. In the radiology department, the patient wait time is almost double that of the other wait time. In the examination room, it was observed that the staff are over utilized or close to being utilized; the surgeon’s utilization is over 1 10%. The bottleneck has been determined to be the examination room, where the surgeon in particular has been working over capacity at over 1 10%. The examination room is also the capacity constraint because it limits the throughout. Improvements to Consider Change of Hours of Operation

One of the biggest complaints by parents is that they are losing money by foregoing work to take their children to the hospital. By changing the hours of operation to later in the day where the average parent is finished with work, it would help eliminate the economic cost of coming to the doctor. It may also help improve waiting times since the hospital may not be as busy later in the day. Upgrade Equipment Although there is a high upfront cost to additional equipment, it should still be considered because of the improvement it will have in patient satisfaction and reducing lead times.

The clinic must weigh he value of improved satisfaction with the economic costs of purchasing the additional equipment. Recommendations Patients who live far away should be allowed to get x-rays done somewhere closer to them to reduce the amount of time they have to wait when they do get to the clinic. Similarly, once the initial diagnosis and tests are conducted, the clinic should recommend other clinics or physicians to conduct follow-up appointments. This would reduce the number of patients the surgeon would see and thus he/she will not be over utilized.

MY Educational Setbacks Essay essay

All through life an essential need is a college education to have an easier successful life, however there are numerous obstacles to overcome. Obstacles in life are truly difficult and the decisions in our path are set there to help us grow as a person. The obstacles, and how choose to manage them, help mold and form my character, to then go ahead to help one another’s with their obstacles. I have confronted some harsh obstacle throughout my life, however I won’t give it a chance to get to me. I have a considerable measure of inspiration and goals that are only the starting, while going to college.

In spite of numerous setbacks that have affected my life, won’t let this obstacles hinder my education. At a recent survey by Stage Of Life College, sixty-seven percent Of understudies feel stress about financial worries. Finance has been one of the greatest obstacles to my education. I would stress about bills of my educational costs, and having the capacity to paying rent for a studio loft of seven hundred dollars a month with a roommate. As a rule, I don’t request cash from my guardians or relatives and hate to acquire cash from them, however in the event that I were in a money related emergency I would ask hem.

When I got money from my guardians or relative would more often than not, on the off chance that I have the cash, pay back the amount they gave me. Attempting to acquire money for bills utilizes most up my time. According to a surprising statistic of undergrads by the College Solution, twenty-three percent of full-time students work twenty hours or more a week. Sadly fall into this percent group; I presently work at a retail location working no less than twenty-one hours for every week. In this way, I see myself concentrating more in my employment than in schoolwork.

Needing to work o pay my school and my necessities has been and always is a tremendous hindrance to succeed. Regardless of what money related issues I get myself into, I will find a solution that would keep my finance stable. Not just does needing to work for school give me financial difficulties; I additionally have time management issues. See myself juggle around between work, school, and a social life. Needing to set aside a few minutes for everything is extremely distressing and totally debilitates me. My class schedule has been influencing my work schedule in where; contingent upon the day I need to work before or after school.

This has been a rationally difficult, as well as physically too. Discovering time in the middle of work and school to get my work done has been difficult. Once in a while usually, phone in sick just to complete my homework or study for an exam. Not just is my time being spent towards school, work, and homework, I don’t even have sufficient energy to have a social life. Time management has not been just alarming in my life it has been in my academic. I just can’t discover the time to study or to do homework. I have been encountering the absence of fixation in my work and school/homework because of the way that I can’t compose my mime.

Needing to stress over on completing my schoolwork on time or writing essays for English is an obstacle need to overcome. Subsequent to defeating this obstacle, it will in the end acquire me my bachelors degree in math and engineering. My financial issues have made me work a ton and be complicated with my time, which brought about me having anxiety. Stress has been a typical issue generally of my life and has been an obstacle. Not knowing how to manage my financial, social associations, time management, and having a full-time employment job have made a segment of my pressure and stress.

As a allege student I need to settle on some upsetting choices and decisions that can influence my life. Some of these experiences can influence my scholarly and monetary hindrances. Case in point, one of my primary stresses in school is planning of my classes and my work. It can be exceedingly overwhelming to keep a solid perspective while being always being pushed as far as possible. In my college years, I have discovered better approaches to adapt to my stressful issues that can hope to resolve. Through out my school academic life, I have confronted different obstacles that have placed me into a mess.

Critical Analysis essay

Taste recently announced its plans of producing an affordable Gene Ill vehicle that will become available in three years with a less expensive battery than the Model S but with the disadvantage of a shorter per-charge range (Albert). Taste currently positions itself in the automotive market as a luxury brand but it now has the opportunity to expand and reach a whole new market with its new Model 3.

The opportunity to successfully win over a new market of middle class buyers and disrupt the auto industry is possible for Taste but here are also many challenges that the company will endure in the process. Teasel’s future ambitions ultimately rest on its ability to manufacture a battery at a competitive price, which seems difficult in the current environment, where oil is plumbing record lows with each passing week (Oiling).

In order to analyze Teasel’s potential success of creating affordable mass market electric vehicles, it is beneficial to consider its competition and existing industry through a STOW analysis. Teasel’s key strength for the new Model 3 development is its outsourcing of secondary components that helps to keep low cost and focus primarily on genealogical advancement (Welch). In turn, this moves to a strong R department, creating high productivity battery systems and electric perpetration (Taste Motors, 2010) and overwhelming the competition in the market.

This is extremely important in the production process of the new Model 3 because the battery and the charger are the key components that need to see improvements to ultimately make the vehicle most cost effective. Taste has also acquired several investors from reputable companies such as Google, and built successful strategic partnerships with Daimler, Toyota Motors and Panasonic (Taste Motors, 2014) that brings mutual benefits to both parties, sharing their expertise in production processes and technologies.

These partnerships also provide the trust for Teasel’s potential customers, future investors, and may also boost the company’s limited brand recognition. Taste also has a competitive advantage over other competitors in the market as it has a comprehensive, proprietary technology with 40 patents awarded and over 200 patents pending (Taste Motors, 2014). Although Taste has all the technological expertise and distinguished tragic partnerships it needs to design a cost effective high performance vehicle, it also has its weaknesses.

With the price point being much lower than its higher level models such as the Model S, Teasel’s Model 3 will not have enough battery capacity to overcome the range limitations that OCCUr on many of its competitors electric cars. Even with a less expensive battery, the cost will be a shorter-per-charge range and will not differentiate itself much from the competition. In order for this vehicle to be efficient enough for the average person to buy, the battery must last longer, and the charge must append quickly so that it can compete with regular filling stations.

The time to recharge one of these vehicles is another weakness that Taste needs to improve upon. If they are trying to appeal to urban city dwellers, they need to reduce the charging time to the point that it will be a comparison to the non-electric models (Km). With the new Model 3 in development, Taste has many opportunities that can help move the company in the right direction for future endeavors, current ones such as the Model 3, and even improving existing ones. Taste is planning to build high powered charging stations across the country that will hare your car in 30 minutes (Km).

Taste can expand and build this “supercharger network’ in locations where urban city dwellers can easily access and quickly charge their vehicles. This expansion of charging stations into urban areas will appeal to a larger group of people outside of the typical “affluent suburbanite’s chaff (Albert). Taste can also find a way to use their battery technology in other areas such as storing power from solar panels. With the big issue being the battery cost for this new affordable car model, it is possible for Taste to reduce lithium-ion battery costs by using alternative sources of power storage.

Taste faces several threats upon entering the mass market with a new cost effective vehicle-?namely from its competitors. First, more and more auto manufacturers are releasing environmentally friendly cars. Chevy plans to release its “Bolt” around the same time as the Teasel’s Model 3. The timing is noteworthy, because the Bolts key features-?range, price tab giant in-dash touchstones-?are clearly intended as a response to Teasel’s Model 3 plans (Remorse). Since many of these companies are larger than Taste Motors, they may have more financial resources.

Thus, they can survive longer if the price of oil does not increase in the near future. Second, there is the threat of increasing internal combustion engine efficiencies. Although alternative-fuel options such as compressed natural gas, propane auto gas, and pure battery- electric are steadily making more and more headway into the vehicle market, most Moms continue to bank on the reliability and efficiencies that go along with the internal combustion engines’ 1 00-plus-year technology (Babcock).

In conclusion, despite the weaknesses and threats that Taste may encounter with this new low-cost vehicle model, Taste has a great chance of disrupting the auto industry-?for the better. Taste should have no problem reaching its tragic goal of bringing its electric vehicles into the mainstream and winning over buyers who would otherwise continue to drive gas-guzzlers. Over time, the network of charging stations and battery improvements have potential to be seen as a huge barrier preventing today’s automotive leaders from being competitive.

Solution essay

Two years ago the top slice company moved from just making golf balls to also producing oversized drivers. Top slice makes three different models the bomber, the hook king and the sir slice a lot. As the names suggest, the last club help correct for golfers who either hook or slice the ball when driving. While Top-slice is pleased with the growing sales for all three models, the numbers present Jacob Lee, the production manager, with a dilemma.

Jacob knows that the current manufacturing work cell is capable of producing only 2700 drivers per month, and total sales seem to be rapidly approaching that number. Jojoba’s staff has sold him it will take at least three months to plan for and implement an expanded work cell. 1. Develop a quantitative forecast model for Jacob Lee. Which modeling technique did you choose, and why? What are the assumptions behind your model? Answer: Here in this case linear regression will be used as a forecasting model.

The reason why the regression will be used is because by following below given graphs it is very clear that the data follows linear trend with no seasonal variation. Assumptions behind the regression model: 1 . Linear relationship between time and variable to be predicted 2. Randomly distributed error variables 3. Available data represents observed values and both the time and variable to be predicted are measured with no error 4. Independent variable variance is larger than zero 5.

Biology Book essay

How did you get started in science? Eve always been interested in nature and animals, and in puzzles and mystery books I really like curing things out. As an undergraduate at LLC Davis, I worked in a lab on a bacterial project while taking courses in both biochemistry and genetics. Then, as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins, I learned a lot of biochemistry while studying marine bacteria. The bacteria belong to the genus Brio, and was working on checkmates, movement by cells toward food or away from noxious chemicals in the environment.

What are the advantages of using bacteria for research in cell biology? Bacteria have been the foundation of molecular biology for the last 100 years because they re accessible. They grow fast, they form clones of identical cells, ND they re amenable to biochemical and genetic analyses. Most of what we initially learned about molecular biology about genes and proteins and other bimolecular came from work done on bacteria. Because of evolutionary history, the most basic and ancient life processes that happen in bacteria also happen in humans and other higher organisms.

Humans have more 92 UNIT TWO When I was noshing my graduate work, heard a talk by Mike Silverman, a scientist with the Ground Institute in San Diego, about how bacteria talk to each other, count their own numbers, and coordinate their behavior. Mike had been working on a electrocuting bluestocking) marine bacterium called Brio shier that lives symbiotically inside a variety of marine animals. The animal provides nutrients for the bacteria, which live in an enclosed space within the animal s body. In return, the bacteria provide light that been TTS the animal by scaring away predators or attracting prey or a mate.

But if only a small number of bacteria are present, they do not make light producing light would waste energy because the light would t be visible. The word quorum means the number needed to do something, and bacteria can sense whether there is a quorum or not and CT accordingly. The way quorum sensing works is that bacteria release certain signaling chemicals into the environment. As the bacterial cells increase in number, the molecules reach a concentration at which many of them bind to receptor proteins on the surface of or inside the bacteria.

The signaling molecule TTS together with the receptor like a key in a lock. In the case of the surface receptors, each receptor molecule has a part on the outside Of the cell and a part on the inside. The signaling chemical binds to the outer part of the receptor, tickling the protein so that it makes something happen inside the ell. For instance, in Brio shier, binding of signaling molecules ultimately turns on genes that code for enzymes that make light. Mike had worked out this mechanism of how cells of Brio shier turn on light in synchrony.

It s important to understand that back then, we just din t think about bacteria like that we thought bacteria ignored each other and did their own thing as solitary cells. Was totally fascinated. Thought, He s either crazy or he s brilliant but I just have to work on that. Went up to the podium after his talk and begged him to let me be his postcode. Finally he said yes, even though he was a geneticist and I was a biochemist! He took a chance on me. How does a genetic approach differ from a biochemical one?

Geneticists make lots of mutant organisms, then think up clever strategies to ND the ones with mutations in the genes they re interested in. In the case of quorum sensing in bluestocking bacteria, you look for cells that remain dark. If you have mutated genes involved in quorum sensing, you would expect the bacteria not to make light because light emission depends on the cells communicating with each other. Eventually, you would hope to identify he components that function in normal light-emitting bacteria but not in the mutants.

Biochemists, on the other hand, start by isolating molecules and studying their properties directly. Genetics and biochemistry are complementary approaches. I m glad I know both because the combination is more effective than either approach by itself. What did you learn about quorum sensing as a postcode? In Mike s lab, I worked on another species of bluestocking Brio called Brio Harvey. Because these bacteria are free-living in the ocean, we thought their quorum-sensing molecular circuitry might be more complicated than hat of Brio shier.

What I found was that Brio Harvey has two parallel systems for quorum sensing, one that senses cells of the same species and one that counts bacteria of other species. Fast-forwarding a decade or so, this second system seems to be present in many bacteria, and the second signaling molecule appears to be universal. So, apparently bacteria can measure the ratios of these two signals, and they re saying, How many of us and how many of you are there? Then they do different things, depending on who is in the majority. And this sin t just restricted to fluorescence.

Other bacterial behaviors are also controlled by quorum sensing, such as forming an organized thin layer (called a bio Im) on your teeth or coordinating virulent infection. Tell us more about bio alms. We used to think that most bacteria lived as individual cells suspended in liquid environments. But we now understand that in the wild, they live attached to surfaces in bio alms, and they secrete carbohydrates and other molecules that form a protective slime on the bio Im surface. Most of us have noticed the bio Im coating our teeth every morning.

Believe it or not, there are about 600 bacterial species in that bio Im just trying to make a living, eating nutrients from us, but the side effect is that we get cavities. And when someone has a lung infection or an implant or heart valve that harbors an infection, the bacteria are growing as a bio Im in the lungs or on the introduced device. So we now understand why these infections are so hard to treat: It s because the slime on the bio Im is providing a protective shield that antibiotics can t penetrate.

What questions are you and your lab asking now? My group is interested in how information outside an organism gets inside so that the organism does the right thing at the right time. We work on bacteria because they re simple, but we hope that we will have insights for people working on higher organisms. And we re curious about how collective behaviors rest evolved on Earth. How did multicultural come about? We know that the rest organisms were bacteria, but how did they begin to do things together?

How did groups of cells in your body come to act like a liver or a heart? We re very interested in how the owe of information through networks facilitates multicultural. Where do you think this led is going? Think we II be turning our attention to the possibility of communication teens organisms from different kingdoms and different domains. Bacteria have been around for over 4 billion years and have probably been living with multicultural eukaryotic hosts for hundreds of millions of years.

So why would t these hosts have evolved strategies to listen in, say, to the conversation being carried out by a group of pathogenic bacteria? Does our immune system hear bacterial signaling molecules? Do hosts actively prevent quorum sensing among pathogenic bacteria? Do they tune in and help the good bacteria? I think this is going to be a dialogue, not a monologue. What do you enjoy most about your life as a scientist? Eve what I work on. I greed out as a postcode how much fun this life in science is that it is not about me against other scientists or who is going to discover something rest.

Instead, it s me against this bacterium, and we are in it head-to-head for the rest of our lives, in a contest of wills between bacteria trying to keep their secrets and me trying to discover them. Also, the basic question Of how groups work together fascinates me. I work with a fantastic group of students and we share everything everybody gives everybody everything, and then we all get more. That s quorum sensing! Both my electoral and monomolecular lives involve getting the group to do more than the individual. I love that parallelism!

My gang of students show me their data, and it s my job to help them guru out the science and get on with their careers. I m so lucky having 24 hands and 12 brains is so much better than two hands and one brain. The science is always changing and trying to keep up with these young and tireless people is hugely challenging and rewarding. What is your advice to an undergraduate who is considering a career in biology? For undergraduates who are considering a life in science, my advice is to work n something that you are passionate about.

Don t be limited by thinking that bench science is the only thing a scientist can do. There are so many potential careers for a biologist. You Are there applications for the basic research you could work on Capitol Hill as a scientist c advisor or policymaker. When you re asking fundamental questions, you hope that surrey could teach. You could be a lawyer. You could be a writer who prices, things you never thought of, will come out of helps the public understand science. You could work on science edit. Now that we know that bacteria talk to each auction at the kindergarten level.

Figure out your particular Other and perform group activities, the combinations of personality traits and what you really love Zion is whether we could interfere with doing as a scientist; then make that niche for yourself and these conversations for therapeutic purring science to that career. The sky s the limit for bibliophiles. Could we make molecules that The sky s the limit for gist because biology is the science of the 21 SST century keep bacteria from talking or heard it touches every part of our lives. Biologists because ins ? Maybe these would be new an- diabetics.

Bio alms are a terrible logy is the science problem in medicine and dental health, and now that we are starting to of the 21 SST century and know the molecular basis for their formation, maybe we can learn how to prĂȘt touches every part vent them from forming. Of our lives. Bacteria get a lot Of bad press for the negative things they do. On the Other hand, bacteria also do many miraculous things that keep us alive; they are working for us every instant of our lives. You are covered with a bacterial bio Im that acts as invisible body armor these good bacteria occupy all the spaces on your skin, preventing invading bacteria from attaching.

Throughout your gut you have a huge mass of bacteria, and they re making vitamins for you and helping you digest your food. So all bio Aims arena t bad and for the good bio alms, what if we could ND a molecule to make quorum sensing better? Rather than an antibiotic, this would be a proportion. Bonnie Baseless (left) with Lisa aura (center) and Jane Race 6 OVERVIEW The Fundamental Units of Life Given the scope of biology, you may wonder sometimes how A Tour of the Cell you will ever learn all the material in this course!

The answer involves cells, which are as fundamental to the living systems of biology as the atom is to hammiest. The contraction of muscle cells moves your eyes as you read this sentence. The words on the page are translated into signals that nerve cells carry to your brain. Figure 6. 1 shows extensions from one nerve cell (purple) making contact with another nerve cell (orange) in the brain. As you study, your goal is to make connections like these that solidify memories and permit learning to occur. All organisms are made of cells.

In the hierarchy of biological organization, the cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive. Indeed, many forms of life exist as conscienceless organisms. More complex organisms, including plants and animals, are multicultural; their bodies are cooperatives of many kinds of specialized cells that could not survive for long on their own. Even when cells are arranged into higher levels of organization, such as tissues and organs, the cell remains the organism s basic unit of structure and function. All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells.

However, they have been mood deed in many different ways during the long evolutionary history of life on Earth. But although cells can differ substantially from one another, they share common features. In this chapter, we II rest examine the tools and techniques hat allow us to understand cells, then tour the cell and become acquainted with its components. CONCEPT * Figure 6. 1 How do your brain cells help you learn about biology?

Activity essay

Does the promo meet the requirements of the CAB? Yes my promo meets the requirements of the CAB as it gives a detailed artist line-up of my festival, lasts between 45 and 60 seconds, it’s suitable for my target audience and includes sound effects and a soundtrack. What sound effects or soundtrack did you add? How did this enhance the promo? Added a few sound effects to my promo to enhance it further. One effect I added was a firework explosion. I added this to the start of my promo and it made it more that little bit more thrilling. Secondly, I added an audience clapping sound effect.

This made my promo more atmospheric, like the listeners are already at the festival. I thought this was a very effective sound effect, I added it twice. Included a soundtrack from a band attending my festival, the ‘Arctic Monkeys’. This will enhance my promo because the listeners will remember the song, and it will link it to my promo. This will mean more people will remember details about my festival such as the artist list. What feedback did you receive from your teacher and test buddy? My teacher told me should fade out my promo towards the end. Consequently, he also said I should change the volume of my soundtrack as it was overpowering.

What action did you take as a result of the feedback? In response to this feedback, I faded out the end of my promo and also made sure the soundtrack ended quite gracefully. Furthermore, I experimented with the volume of my sound effects, voice-over and soundtrack. After a while found the perfect volume for each section of my promo, with the soundtrack quieter than the viceroy and the sound effects slightly louder than my voice-over. Mobile application prototype Design What features of your designs would make the prototype suitable for your target audience? Try to justify your design decisions. Lost my original review) What feedback did you receive on your designs from your teacher and test buddy? What action did you take as a result of the feedback? Do the prototype designs meet the requirements of the CAB? Build How did you gather the assets? What did you do to prepare them for use in the prototype? Why did you choose the assets? Did you add any other features or screens? How did they enhance the prototype? How did you test your prototype? Does the final prototype differ from your original designs? If so, explain any changes you made. What feedback did you receive from your teacher and test buddy?

Nursing essay

More investigative studies are needed to test the variation of tissue tolerance during prolonged surgery I chose this article based on its relevance to my epic and the highlights on new measures that use technology to measure the temperature and pressure placed on the bony prominences during us roger. Brindle, C. T. , & Wiggling,J. Journal of Wound Story Continence Nurses Society Quantitative Experimental design 100 cardiac surgical patients in CHIC. Ix week study All Participants had foam dressing applied prep and daily skin assessment Comparison group had standard of care only(foam dressing removed Post) Intervention group had standard of care *foam dressing was not removed No statistical difference in participants characteristics No pressure sores were noted until day 6 Post. In the comparison group, 1 1. 7% developed pressure sores. In the intervention group 2% developed pressure sores.

The presence of pressure sores were lower then expected. Further research is needed to test the use Of sacral foam dressing in the operating room. Nursing interventions may have contributed to the lower rate of pressure sores chose this article based on the Authors current hospitals practice. The application of foam dressings on all surgical patients with a low Braded score and/or patients with long surgeries. Connors, T. , Sledge, J. Bryant-Worriers, L. , Steam, L. , & Potter, P.

Society of Urological Nurses and Associates 201 0 147 Patients undergoing urological surgical procedure The Braded Scale was selected to evaluate the risk for pressure sore development The average Braded Scale score prep was 22. 63 (range 14 to 26) and Post was 18. 72 Further research is needed to examine pressure ulcer occurrence in the OR to identify predictive variables I chose this article to research the importance of identifying patients at high risk for pressure sores and the use of tissue support on OR tables Guiana, M. , Bombardier,C. , Deed,D. , Repack,L. , Rogers,T. , Bates-Jensen,B. Holmes,S. American Congress of Rehabilitation medicine Journal 2014 singletree prospective randomized control Design 173 Veterans with preexisting pressure sores six month study All participated in self management and motivational interviews to increase patient compliance statistical data showed no improvement of pressure sores in patients that left the hospital with pressure sores More changes in collaborative health care is needed to reduce the recurrence of pressure sores I chose this article to compare the interventions of interviews with interventions of direct nursing care.

Karakas, M. , & G;m;skyway, N. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2006 Quantitative; Prospective and Analytic descriptive study 84 surgical patients in Turkey All surgeries lasted 2 or more hours Braded score assessment prep and Post. IBM form filled out and patients were followed six months post surgery. Findings correlated with the increase of pressure sores with surgeries lasting more then two hours chose this article to support my theory that surgery that will be longer then 2 hours in length need to have patient interventions in place to prevent pressure sores. Iranian M..

Friend VI. ,MCClure C. , Nard S, Fix L.. Schafer M. , Savoir K. , Magnet M. Association of preoperative Registered Nurses 201 1 Prospective Cohort Design 258 surgical patients during an eight month period. All patients underwent surgery for more then 3 hours the use of foam table pad reduced Braded score in surgical patients the findings indicate table surface and patient positioning may influence the occurrence of pressure sores chose this article to compare same day surgical patients with no prep pressure sores with their post pop skin assessment Shuck D.. Paddle C. Osborne E. Quantitative; retrospective descriptive study 150 cardiac surgical patients. Six month study Three groups of fifty patients each used A -Standard foam mattress. B-Fluid pressure reducing mattress C-Fluid pressure reducing mattress and nursing intervention Group Group Group developed pressure ulcer Author suggest that preventing pressure sores is a team effort between preoperative, interpretive, and postoperative nurses. I chose this article to compare the differences pressure sore incidences in operation tables used during surgery. Shania, E. , Dashes, T. Halftones, R.

International Journal of Nursing Studies 2009 Quantitative, Longitudinal Study 121 ICC patients Patients were assessed at admission and discharge of ICC and assessed using Braded Score and APACHE II score. During the ICC stay 6 pressure sores developed and 5 Pressure sores healed. There was a correlation between APACHE II score and new pressure sores. Pressure sores can be healed in ICC patients chose this article to gain understanding between pressure sores and critically ill patients. Attachments Del, Bates O, Talisman A, Go Y. American Journal of Critical Care Quantitative; Cohort Study 3,225 surgical patients. Nine month study To compare patients’ characteristics (age, sex, IBM, hex of diabetes, and Braded Scale score at admission) VS.. Patient Care characteristics(total OR time, number of surgeries, and possessor use) The patients Braded score at admission, length of surgery, and IBM all played a role in the development of pressure sores. Pressure sores can be avoided if potential risk factors are addressed and interventions are used. I chose this article based of the amount of participants and that this was a cohort study wanted to compare ND contrast the differences between the studies.

Van Len M, Hooves S, Nesses J, Halftones R, Schools J. Journal of Tissue Viability single center prospective controlled clinical trial 83 patients with <12 score on the Norton Scale and no pressure sore at the beginning of the study Group A-? cold foam mattress Group B=static air overlay over the cold foam mattress Group A: 17. 1% Group 8-4. 8% Developed pressure sores. Group B's intervention provided better prevention against pressure sores. I chose this article to determine the use of air overlay in preventing pressure sores.