Managing Service Quality essay

This situation can be attributed to the increased importance and significance eing witnessed in the service industry by both the developed and the developing economies of the world. In fact, growth in the service sector is often used as an indicator to measure a countryos economic growth. The service industry has since become the main stay of the economy of many nations. The sen. ‘ice industry offers services to customers. These customers often expect value for their money. Customer satisfaction is of equal importance in the service industry just like in the product related business.

Three forces dominate the prevailing marketing environment in the sen. ‘ice ector increasing competition from private players, changing and improving technologies and continuous shifts in the regulatory environment, which has led to the growing customer sophistication. Customers have become more and more aware of their requirements and demand higher standards of services. Their perceptions and expectations are continually evolving making it difficult for the service providers to measure and manage services effectively.

The key lies in improving the service selectively, paying attention to more critical service attributes/dimensions as a part of customer service anagement. It is an imperative to understand how sensitive the customers are to various service attributes or dimensions. Allocating resources in the fashion that is consistent with customer priorities can enhance the effectiveness in the service operations. In addition, customer service attribute priorities need to be fully explored in service specific contexts.

This paper is an attempt to explore relative importance of service quality dimensions across a ?selectD service context. Keywords”customer Satisfaction, Economic Growth, Regulatory Environment, Service Industry, Service Marketing, Service Operation Abbreviations”catastrophe (CAT), Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) INTRODUCTION WO major factors that shape the practice of marketing in service organizations are (1) Environment, (2) How a particular business views and organizes its marketing efforts.

Both factors are equally important in creating and constraining managers? opportunities for effective action. For example, in the financial services industry the three major external forces that affect competition are: increasing internationalization of all financial products and players, the change in the egulatory environment (which is removing many barriers to open competition and to the types of companies allowed to compete), and the accelerating impact and pervasiveness of information technology [Taylor et al. 1993]. Which create long-lasting change, in such a scenario the companies that react more swiftly and that anticipate or even create the change that offer the opportunity are likely to be the winners. There are three major tasks that a market oriented manager in a financial service organization must accomplish in order to achieve success. The first of these is to ISSN: 2321 – 242X dentify the key strategic success factors operating in the specific industry and to build the companyDs unique strategy around these factors.

Secondly, the manager must be able to establish an organization and system capable of creating and implementing plans built around the companyL]s strategy. Thirdly, the manager must be able to free market its departmental base and infuse and defuse it throughout the organization. It must however be kept in mind that the second and third tasks can only be performed after the first one is accomplished [Moriarty et al. , 1990; Krohe Jr. , James, 2006]. Customer satisfaction is a feat that every business that intends to be deemed successful must strive to meet.

It is the measure of how services supplied to the customers meet or surpass their expectation [Bell, 1992]. Customer satisfaction is an important concept in service and is considered to be part of a balanced scorecard. Customer satisfaction informs the management that the line managers and the staff who are in direct contact with the customers are actually doing a good job. This report will seek to apply the various service marketing concepts and theories to an experience had with a ervice provider. 2013 | Published by The Standard International Journals (The SIJ) 88 The SJ Transactions on Industrial, Financial & Business Management (IFBM), vol. 1, NO. 2, May-June 2013 LITERATURE REVIEW Service marketers have experienced it for past few years that competition can be well managed by differentiating through quality, and of course there are exceptions where quality traditionally been an internal affair, e. g. , health care. Importance of service lies in customer service management. Customer service is viewed as a part of marketing mix in services marketing.

It is also viewed as logistic function of being subsumed within the customer service activity and as timeliness and reliability of delivering services to customers in accordance with their expectations. Because of the inseparability and intangibility features of services, customer service in service businesses is usually more important than in manufacturing companies [Henkoff, 1994]. In recent years thrust on efficient customer service has increased manifold in the services sector because of increased competition from private players, improved technologies, and growing customer sophistication.

For example, in the insurance sector, the private players (Prudential & Standard Life of the 13K, Sun Life of Canada and AIG, Met Life and New York Life of the US) are making strides in raising awareness levels, introducing innovative products and increasing the penetration of the market. Some insurance such as ICICI Pru Life, have fulfilled their mission to be a scale player in the mass market by introducing a range Of thirteen products to meet the need of each customer in the effort to serve them better.

Many others have taken a more focused approach, introducing select products that they elieve hold potential and fill market gaps. And as technology has come to its aid, the reach and the ability to service each customer seamlessly has increased. Multiple touch points have emerged -contact centers, email, facsimile, websites and of course snail-mail- which enable the customer to get in touch with insurance companies quickly, easily and directly. As a result of which response time has come down dramatically and information availability has become immediate.

Thus, in the context of increasing access to information and tougher competition, the customer will be ore demanding for service. Technology will enable him to make comparisons quickly and accurately. High quality customer service will have to mean more than a customer accepted by all levels of management and staff [Berry & parasurarnan, 1991 Sharma Shikha, 2002]. Other services have also witnesses the same developments, e. g. , in the fast-food sector, there is stiff competition from private players.

With the entry of McDonald- the worldCs best quick service restaurant, Pizza Hut, Sub Way, etc. , customer expectations from Indian counterparts particularly Nirulas have increased. McDonald s constantly promoting its corporate mission of People Promise and people Vision. The people Promise is “how we remind our people what they can expect and how high our goal is: to be the best employer in each community around the world”. And the People Vision is “weare not just a hamburger co. serving people, weL]re a Co. erving hamburger’. It has the customer service department and web site to provide customer convenience, which most fast-foods in India donC]t have. Thus, competition and technological up gradation, etc. have resulted Thus, competition and technological up gradation, etc. have resulted sophisticated in their requirements and are increasingly demanding higher standards of service. To them service means customer satisfaction, customer delight, service delivery, customer relationship, etc.

Therefore interest in managing the services through customer service is considerably high. It requires setting customer service objective in terms of relative importance of customer service elements. In other words, while considering levels of performance in setting customer service objectives, service companies need to take into account the importance of service quality variables such as eliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles Customer service initiatives are, thus, closely related to quality improvement initiatives [Gr¶nroos, 1984].

It is the relationship marketing that brings quality, customer service, and marketing together. With this, the attainment of quality has become pivotal concern among the marketers. Considering the paramount importance of quality improvement and management in services, the present study has been undertaken with the objective of contributing a measure of clarity to the research on the issue of relative mportance of different dimensions of service quality in the service businesses. This would have implications for Customer service and resource management.

II. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This paper aims to publish research in the field of service management that not only makes a theoretical contribution to the service literature, but also appeals to practitioners. Recognizing the importance of the service sector all over the globe. This paper outlines some of the most common impediments to service quality management and explores the steps service providers need to take to help improve service quality, increase ustomer satisfaction and gain a competitive advantage.

Volunteers And Decision Making essay

The purpose of this paper is to: examine the role of volunteers in non-profit organizations, discuss the role olunteers play in for profit organization, and explore the influence volunteers exert on organizational decision making. The Role Of Volunteers in Non-profit Organizations According to Lewis, Hamel, and Richardson (2001 ), non-profit organizations (NPOs) are groups of individuals who associate to perform public tasks delegated to them by the state, provide services for which for-profit organizations will not fulfill and influence policy in the state, the for-profit sector, or other nonprofits.

Lewis et al. (2001 also stated common characteristics that NPOs share are the existence of formal constitution, a ystem for self-governance and the use of a volunteer workforce. Non-profit organizations draw distinctions among themselves evidenced by their stated mission and objections. Volunteers render invaluable service for non-profit organizations (NPOs). The roles of NPO volunteers fall into two categories; those who choose to lend their service to an organization and those who are chosen to lend their managerial expertise to an organization.

Most NPO volunteers consist of the former and serve on the front lines assisting paid workers with the day to day operations of the organization. The volunteering oard member serves in the administrative capacity for the company. According to Inglis and Alexander (1999), duties for NPO board members are selecting and supporting the chief executive, reviewing the executive’s performance, planning for the future, and monitoring the organization’s programs and services. The Role of Volunteers in For-profit Organizations. One has to look no further than to the name to understand the nature of for profit organizations.

These organizations exist to provide monetary gain to employees and shareholders. For-profit organizations such as nursing homes, ospitals and other human service institutions once operated as NPOs. Volunteers who serve in these for profit organizations have similar roles and duties as volunteers in NPOs. Roles of volunteers in traditional for-profit settings are somewhat different. Unfortunately, most volunteers that serve in for profit organizational settings are student interns fulfilling a requirement for matriculation through college.

Like the traditional volunteer, interns work voluntarily without pay or obligation, but not out of humanitarian, charitable, or social motivations (Bodtke, 2015). Unlike NPO volunteers, interns and other for-profit organizational volunteers have certain criteria place upon them that define their roles. According to Bodtke (201 5), the Federal Labor Standards Act prohibits for-profit businesses from accepting volunteer services unless the volunteer meets the six criteria of an intern/trainee.

With an intern/ trainee designation for-profit volunteers are more akin to employees than volunteers. Influence of Volunteers on Organizational Decision Making. Volunteers are able to provide organizational an unbiased valid opinion bout matters concerning the organization that can prove to be very beneficial. Volunteers have a unique perspective as many times they are on the front line within an organization but don’t have certain allegiances or pressure to please leaders. As such, volunteers are in a position to share their honest feelings without fear of repercussion.

Cuskelly (1995) noted that associations which seem to be more successful at building organizational commitment are those which facilitate the needs of volunteers. Providing a forum for volunteers to present their concerns and suggestions would be a ood start for an organization that values to input of this valuable resource. Additionally, creating leadership opportunities among volunteers will provide volunteers and volunteer leaders a since of increased salience within the organization.

Bowers and Hambry (2013), stated that supervisors of volunteers were perceived to be more participative in decision-making than supervisors of paid employees. As a school leader, observance of volunteer participation in decision making occurs on a daily basis. The Parent Teacher Organization (PTO), is made up of volunteers, who work tirelessly to promote he welfare and success of schools. Each year school administration selects new leaders among parent volunteers to serve as the school’s PTO volunteer leaders for that school year.

Their service is invaluable and the input they provide helps administration make sound decisions based on a parent and workers perspective. This perspective is often the most valid and reliable. Conclusion Volunteerism is on the rise in the United States. Recent statistics suggests, that about 27 percent of Americans ages 16 and older volunteered during the rior year, donating on average 51 hours of their time (Lawrence & Webber 2013). No one knows the total hours and contributions made by this valuable resource.

ILM Communication In The Workplace essay

Effective communication is an essential tool is obtaining high productivity, a strong working team at all levels throughout the business and a business that operates smoothly. If a leader spends time in developing clear and effective communication then trust with employees will build. I believe that there is a link between communication and motivation with staff. Good communication is an important part of my role as a leader to ensure staff feel motivated and valued in their job. This in turn can lead to increased productivity, output and staff morale.

If employees feel they are valued this is empowering and leads to job satisfaction and a ighly motivated employee. If an employee feels undervalued then this will lead to lack of motivation and no drive. Effective communication also makes it easier for a leader to control and co-ordinate the business. If employees can give feedback or feel involved in the decision making then as a leader it helps me with any decisions I may need to make. am able to make decisions on more accurate information from feedback from employees. It also reduces misunderstanding.

An example of this could be Owo patients with the same first name in the waiting room. The nurse needs to have been informed of a atients full name to ensure the correct patient and patient notes are brought into the surgery. Effective communication can also improve relationships with our suppliers / contractors and reduce litigation by ensuring GDC standards are maintained within the dental practice. AC 1. 2 Describe the stages in the communication cycle Effective communication is essential to the smooth efficient operation of a business.

There are four stages to the communication cycle. The first stage is creating the message. I as a leader need to decide what the message is need to get across and what method it is best to communicate the message in. For example if it is a written format I need to ensure that the message is concise and clearly written. If it is an oral medium then I must ensure it is clearly spoken. The second stage is transmitting the message. Once the message has been created it must be given to the receiver (employee. Examples of transmission could be as simple as a meeting with the employee or a telephone call – both orally transmitting the message. If the message is for a group of employees then the message could be transmitted in the form of an email or memo which is printed and handed out. The third stage is interpreting the message. Once the employee has received the message they must then interpret what the message is telling or asking them. Generally the employee would read or listen to the message and analyse it in their head into a more meaningful and manageable message.

The fourth and final stage of the cycle is response. Communication is a two way process. The employee must now respond to the message. The response maybe verbal and immediate which is what would normally happen if the message had been transmitted face to face or a written response that either responds in detail to the initial message or just confirms receipt of the message. An example of the communication process in my work place is that not all staff work on the days our staff meetings take place. At staff meetings any important information, problems or changes are discussed.

To ensure that all staff receive the message of what was discussed at the meeting and any outcomes produce a copy of the meetings minutes for staffwho missed the meeting but also to everyone who did attend. produce a document of bullet points of each topic with a brief outline of what was discussed or decided. I believe that this written communication is essential I feel it is important for all staff to nsure they have a written copy to relate back to in the future as a lot of topics can be covered in one meeting so it can be a lot to remember. ransmit this message by handing a copy out to each employee in person and getting them to sign a sheet to say they have received it. This is then filed in the surgery record book. Staff are then encouraged to come to me if they do not understand something or if they have feedback on one of the points. At the start of the next staff meeting then we briefly discuss any problems employees may have with regards to the copy of last month’s meeting as they ould have had time to analyse the ‘message’ that was given to them in form Of the copy Of meeting minutes. AC 1. 3 Identify possible barriers to communication in the workplace.

There are a variety of barriers to communication in the workplace. Some examples of these are: Technical breakdown – has the email sent? Poor timing – stressful situation? unclear message / use of jargon Cultural barrier past experience Hierarchy / sexism / personal views Wrong format Wrong target for message Lack of knowledge ‘Chinese whispers’ To explain a few of these in more detail I will use examples from within my orkplace. We have one dentist in our workplace who we describe as ‘old school. ‘ He is very set in his ways and strongly believes that men are ‘higher’ than women.

On most occasions unless requested by the female principle if as practice manager or one of the nurses ask him to do something he will refuse or point blank ignore the message. Therefore any message that needs to be delivered to him is very difficult. Poor timing is another barrier. Last year we have difficulty in work with our boss being involved in an accident. It was very difficult to get messages across to employees as it was a stressful ituation. Some staff reacted efficiently to messages and went out of their way to help me take control of the business.

Other staff members would ignore simple messages such as asking them to perform simple dental nursing tasks such as bleeding compressors weekly. This message had to be transmitted a number of times and in a number of methods (oral and written) before staff were willing to complete the task without being reminded. Cultural barriers are a barrier believe is becoming more of an issue. With Britain becoming more of a mixed ethnical nation we are treating a lot more foreign nationalities. With this comes the breakdown of communication due to the language barrier.

Patients cannot always understand what the dentist is saying to them. Getting consent for treatment can be difficult. As a practice we verbally explain treatment plans then get the patient to sign a written treatment plan. If a patient cannot understand us then we cannot get consent from them to continue with treatment. Wrong target for message can sometimes be another common barrier within the workplace. Some messages within the practice can be solely aimed at the dentists rather than the team. An example of this could be changes in the way the practice will be ending dental referrals.

Usually our staff meetings are for the whole team so if something aimed at just the dentists is discussed the other staff members may lose concentration and start talking. This can distract the dentists so they do not receive the message clearly. AC 1. 4 Explain how to overcome a potential barrier to communication One problem we have consistently within my workplace is that a few of the nurses do not complete the surgery files. These files are a GDC requirement and consist of a few tick sheets that show the nurse has completed: Surgery sterilisation daily routine – TST strip

Dental unit water line test Changed the instrument bath and impression bath This message has been verbally discussed a number of times at staff meetings and in person with the nurses who aren’t completing the task. With certain staff not performing the task it is affecting the team as a whole as the nurses who are doing it feel that the other are not pulling their weight. This then brings the teams motivation down. A way to overcome this barrier is to put a personal development plan in place. The staff that are not completing the task can then be monitored.

Incentives for staff who complete tasks could then be offered. This would ensure that all staff are working towards their personal development plans. This in turn would then increase staff moral and team work. Staff would also need to understand that what they aren’t doing is a legal GDC requirement and failure to complete the tasks means they risk losing their registration and would be unable to work. AC 2. 1 Describe the main methods of written and oral communication and their uses Written communication is communication by method of symbols which can be printed or hand written.

It can be used to provide detailed information such as facts whilst giving a presentation. Written communication is formal, planned, detailed and official and in general carries more authority than oral communication. It also provides proof of the transmission of a message. There is a wide range of written communication such as letters, emails, instant messaging and text messages. One use of written communication, and the one reason for written communication I believe is most important within a business is contracts/agreements.

These are an important legal document and is one of the first communications an employee would receive from their employer. We have staff files that contain written documentation or that individual employee. The files contain any letters to employees, the terms and conditions of employment, what their role is and what is expected of them and their contract. believe that this written communication is vital between the employer and employee. It outlines all that is expected of the employee, what the employer will give them in return (i. e. contract contains information on maternity / sickness etc. any personal development plans and appraisals. It can also contain disciplinary and warnings. This written communication is important as it is proof that a message has been ransmitted. Oral communication is probably one ofthe most used forms of communication. Oral communication uses our voice to transmit a message either face to face or over the phone/skype/FaceTime and may be supported by visual aids. Oral communication is more direct than written, is less formal, elicits a response of some kind and is more spontaneous. The receiver of the message will need to ensure they clearly understand what the message is.

This means that both the sender and receiver need to use listening and speaking skills to ensure the message is clearly communicated. Oral communication can include staff meetings, personal discussions, informal conversations, phone calls, face to face talking and presentations. One example of oral communication within my workplace which believe is our main method of oral communication is conversations. Staff have to verbally communicate to each other. They have to inform each other when patients arrive, if there are any problems or issues such as a patient running late to an appointment.

Oral communication is essential to ensure a message is delivered immediately and staff feedback a message has been received by erforming the task such as when the reception inform the nurse a patient has changes to their medical history, the nurse then immediately informs the dentist before calling the patient into the surgery. AC 2. 2 Identify the main advantages and disadvantages of written communication Sometimes written communication is more effective than oral communication because the message can be delivered in the correct format for the receiver to understand and there is a reduced risk in miscommunication of the message.

Main advantages of written communication include: Proof of message being transmitted and easy to relate back to Easier to resent complex messages If the written format is email or instant message this is free so is cost effective Message can be accepted better by the receiver than a face to face method Gets a uniform message across a team Brand awareness in poster/emails Accurate messages are communicated as time is spent to ensure correct message is communicated Delegate authority Risk of distortion of message is reduced Can be used as a method of control within a business For me believe that the most important advantage of written communication is the fact there is a trace / proof it has been transmitted. As a usiness a ‘paper trail’ is always important and reduces the risk of litigation. Whether the written message is in the form of a contract between employee and employer or a treatment plan to a patient, written paper trails to prove the message was given to the receiver is essential. If there is ever discrepancy that a staff member didnt know what was expected of them / what their role was, or that a patient didn’t know what treatment they were having done, if you have written confirmation then you have proof that you had transmitted the message to them. Main disadvantages of written communication include:

Can be expensive – use of paper/printer ink/pen Time consuming – uses time of both the sender and receiver Red Taoism takes time to get approval back or feedback It is a useless form of communication if someone is illiterate or can’t understand English for example Lack of flexibility – cannot be changed that easily or quickly sometimes Delay in decision making as it takes time for a response. Complexity of the vocabulary used may not be understood Lack of direct relation between the sender and receiver Dont know when the message had been received believe that in my workplace the main disadvantage of written ommunication is that we don’t know when the message has been received. Our main method of written communication between staff is ‘sticky notes’ which are put in the area of work the receiver works, i. e. y the computer in the surgery of the dentist who the message is for or on my desk as practice manager. The sender will not know when the receiver has read the message or if they have understood it. Especially as sticky notes are not that big so do not allow room for a lot of information. I have on occasions been asked if I have received a message which was left on my desk and I havent. This is because sometime the sticky note has been moved or other things put on top of it. AC 2. 3 Identify the main advantages and disadvantages of oral communication Oral communication in recent Surveys is one Of the main methods of communication In businesses.

The advantages of oral communication are: Message is received immediately – time saving Cost saving – no need for paper / pen ink Can be move efficient as oral communication can be more persuasive and controlling Immediate response / feedback to the message which means decisions can be made quicker Can be more suitable than written on ccasions as it is less formal Helps develop relationships Correction of errors in the message understanding can be resolved immediately Can be used to motivate staff and is more personal believe oral communication in motiving staff is vitally important to ensure a smooth running team that work together towards one goal. Oral communication is more personal and can make employees feel valued by the employer. Positive oral communication such as good work girls’ can create a sense of job satisfaction and in turn increase output from staff. In contrast the disadvantages to oral communication are:

No record of the message being delivered or received and nothing to relate back to Expense to the business as sometimes it can take a bit of time out of the working day to orally communicate a message Distortion / inaccuracy of the message if there is a language barrier or the message wasn’t clearly understood Limited use in that it isn’t suitable sometime for lengthy messages which contain a lot of detail No legal validity – if they are not taped then there is no fall back on what was said in the oral communication Can be seen as less important as written communication tends to come across more rofessional Body language can be misinterpreted For me the main disadvantage of oral communication is lack of legal validity. If an important message needs to be delivered I believe it should not be done orally. The reason as to why a paper trail is needed is outlined in AC 2. 2 answer. AC 2. 4 Explain how non-verbal communication can influence the effectiveness of oral communication To understand how non-verbal communication can influence the effectiveness of oral communication it is important to understand what non- vernal communication is. Examples of non-verbal communications are: Sounds (laughing)

Posture (slouching) Hand gestures Facial expressions Body contact (shaking hands) Closeness Eye movements (rolling eyes or looking away) Appearance (untidy) We naturally reinforce, contradict or emphasize our oral communication with non-verbal communication. An example of this is if we congratulate someone we often do this orally with a ‘congratulations you did it! ‘ along with a happy smile and eye contact. The smile and eye contact reinforce our message. To elaborate on some of the main non-verbal methods have chosen a few which I believe in my workplace can influence the effectiveness or oral ommunication. Body language is probably one of the main non-verbal methods. These can include eye contact, posture, and hand or body movements. Body language can positively reinforce the message but it can also conflict the message.

If you maintain good eye contact during a conversation and there is open posture then both parties feel that the message is being effectively communicated and that there is interest from the receiver to understand the message. If the receiver continues to listen and provided positive feedback such as a nodding their head or verbal feedback such ‘yes, I understand’ or by epeating the message then both parties are aware the message has been effectively delivered and received. On the contrast if there is no eye contact, there is a closed posture and there is no or little feedback such as ‘uh-huh’ then this illustrated boredom or last of interest.

This will mean the message has not been received and will probably not be acted upon. Distance between people is also important. Distances can be broken down into three categories: intimate, personal and social. Within the workplace if a person was in the intimate distance whilst communicating with another staff member or patient this would be seen as nacceptable. This situation would make the other person feel awkward and due to the stressful environment the person would feel they are in there would be lack of effective communication. To get effective communication within the workplace, depending on the situation then the personal or social distance needs to be used.

Personal distance is considered the most appropriate for people holding a conversation. It is at this distance hand shaking can occur and the Other personals eye contact and expressions can be seen. Social distance can be good for impersonal business and is a distance used for people who are orking in the same room for example. Speech needs to be louder compared to personal distance but eye contact can remain. AC 2. 5 Explain the value of feedback in ensuring effective communication To ensure that the receiver has understood the message in the way the sender intended them to it is important that the sender receives feedback. Feedback is also another form of effective listening.

When the sender is delivering a message the receiver will show understanding by feeding back positive responses such as ‘l see,’ or ‘0k thats the issue I have. ‘ This shows understanding of the message. Generally if the receiver reframes the message by summarizing the key points it shows effective communication has been delivered and shows the message hasn’t been misinterpreted. Feedback can be interrupted in many different ways. The main example staff would give of feedback is their annual appraisals or if they have had a disciplinary. However feedback is something we get on a daily basis within the workplace. Every time we communicate within work the way we speak to a person i. e. the tone of our voice, the words used etc. communicates how we feel about that person or situation.

We cannot help but give feedback. Feedback can be invaluable as positive feedback or praise can motivate the team. Showing appreciation of a job done well and inspire other staff members to perform well too. Feedback can also help us learn and develop. Using negative feedback can improve management methods and make the managing team more efficient. Feedback can help share ideas within the workplace and improve the way a task is done. This in turn can lead to a more productive team in the future and better output as a business. Finally feedback completes the whole process of communication and makes communication a continuous learning and developing cycle. AC 3.

Assess own performance in a frequently used method of communication During my self-assessment of my communication performance within my work place I realize I use a variety of methods on a daily basis. Depending on the situation such as if I am communicating with an individual or the team will depend on what type of communication I would choose to use. My main method of communication to the team would bea combination of both oral and written communication. As a practice we hold an hourly staff meeting every month. I have a meeting book which is kept as reception. All staff are able to write down anything they would like discussed t the next meeting. lso hold an open door policy by which staff can come to talk to me about anything they would like brought up in the meeting. At the staff meeting I chair the meeting to have control over what is discussed and to ensure that points are kept on track. The good thing about the meeting is that oral the whole team can communicate their opinions on the topics. At the end of the staff meeting I then produce a written document for all staff to keep. This outlines all topics discussed and the outcome. All staff sign to say they have received and understood what was discussed at the eeting. For me this is important as it reduces legal litigation as there is a paper trail to show that all staff have been informed of any changes to procedures within the practice.

The other advantage of this is that if any staff members missed the meeting then they get a copy of what was discussed so they are aware of any information they may need to know. Having the document means that the message is consistent across the team. I can also reference back to this if needed at future staff meetings such as if something still isn’t being done correctly. The disadvantage of this method is that for taff that did not attend the meeting there could be misinterpretation of what the written message is trying to get across. If language is too complex then not all staff may understand the message. Also I am depending on the staff who missed the meeting to sit and read the document – I cannot guarantee they will do this.

Finally as there is a mix of reception staff, nurses and dentists then there may be separate issues which needs to be addressed by each type of employee. Having a mixed meeting is good to bring the team together but having separate ones for nurses, dentists and reception staff ay lead to better feedback and communication as meetings can be catered directly for the employees. This may also lead to better communication in that the staff would concentrate more if all discussions affected them rather than topics that may only affect dentists for example. AC 3. 2 Outline actions to improve own performance in communicating believe there is always room for improvement to develop as a person.

I believe that we should always self-analyze ourselves in all aspects of our job. We will find ways to improve on all different aspects at different stages of our careers. At present feel have two ways in which could improve my erformance in communicating. The first way I could improve is to be more confident with my authority. As have ‘fallen’ into the role of practice manager sometimes find it difficult to ask (orally communicate) to staff if I am asking them to do something. As some staff don’t always listen to me I need to become more authoritative in the way I communicate with staff. The second way I could improve is to release that a method of communication isn’t working.

We have had a continuing problem with some nurses not tying the orange clinical waste bags when they are full. Weekly, the clinical waste ollector has complained about the bags not being tied. This has led to on some occasions him refusing to take our waste. Also we have had problems with some girls not completing the surgery folders daily. We have discussed this issue in detail at practice meetings and handed out written confirmation of this. We have also detailed tying the bags in the surgery closing down procedure. Finally I have also spoken to the girls who aren’t tying the bags or completing the folders on several occasions but still they do not always do it.

The young Adult essay

While other factor such as peer pressure can attribute to who a child becomes the majority of the shaping comes directly from the parents. John Bowlby suggests that there is a direct link between childhood relationships and adult relationships . John Bowlby believed that in the early stages of child development the maternal relationship was the basis of the child becoming an emotionally balanced adult. He believed that the relationship should stem from a monotrophy maternal figure or substitutes loving, caring and onsistent relations with the child (Mossler,201 1).

Bowlby believed that if a relationship was not formed then the child would be less able to form social relationships in adulthood, and would develop behavioral disorders. It seems that everything that we say in do in life has a direct correlation to what we were taught as children. Culture shapes and influences our perceptions, beliefs as well as ideas about ourselves and others (Sole, 201 1). When a child is taught a particular behavior the child often carries that with them hroughout their life, and the cycle often times continues as they pass this knowledge down on to their children.

The reason such behaviors such as stereotyping exist is due to this factor. The Piaget’s theory of cognitive development also backs this idea. Piaget’s theory basically believes an individual’s development is contingent on how a person, thinks, perceives and processes the world. The social cognitive theory also testifies to that parents shaping of a child as it “Overlooks the influence of individuals’ biology (DNA), rain development, hormonal processes and earning differences”. Shriner, Shriner 2014). This signifies that regardless what we are born with, other factors attribute to who we become.

Parents are the first teachers essay

While many factors often contribute to a person’s overall ersona the majority of who you are has direct correlation to the morals and attributes instilled in you by your parents. One of the earliest things our parents teach us is the idea of security. When children are infants, they learn a since of security through the demonstration of parental interactions. Feeding them when they are hungry, changing them when they are wet, and comforting them when they are upset, teaches infants that they can depend on their parent. John Bowlby studied secure attachments between a child and their parent.

He believes that emotional balance as an adult had a direct correlation to the early stages of child evelopment and the maternal relationship. He believed that the relationship should stem from a monotrophy maternal figure or substitutes loving, caring and consistent relations with the child (shriner & shriner, 2014) Bowlby states that children who do not form a secure relationship with their parents would struggle with behavioral disorders and making social connections in adulthood. This factor can be seen in many different areas of an individual’s life.

The Biological Approach looks at genetics as an important cause of human personality characteristics (LeFrancois, 201 1). Our parents hape our personality, through both genetics and by modeling. When we are born we are given genes from both parents who often correlate to certain characteristics in our gene pool. Factors such as eye colors, grade of hair, nose shape and even skin completion are one hundred percent from our parents and the combination of them. I met my father as an adults and I was amazed how had many attributions identical to him in regards to my personality.

For me to have never met my father before 21, a lot of who I am ironically is identical to who he was. Using the biological approach can help etermine what characteristics from you personality are tied to your genes. “Research in neuropsychologioy also looks for the biological bases of personality characteristics and disorders” (LeFrancois, 2011). Some genetic disorders are passed directly from a parent to their child. These disorders can include Down Syndrome and even cancer. Today doctors actually test to see if women who have breast cancer in their family possess the cancer gene. Parents are responsible for other personality traits.

When you look at your personality it is always a combination or portion of one of your parents. Sense of humor, shyness and even aggressive behaviors can be taught by a parent and passed down to a child. This is where we really begin to see the nature versus nurture theory come into play. Nature and Nurture combined attribute to how your life turns out( Conley, 2010). Parents teach through modeling, which combined with genetics create the image of who we are. “Behavior modeling refers to a process in which a person functions as a model for others by exhibiting the specific behavior that needs to be imitated” (LeFrancois,201 1).

As children we learn what is appropriate, what is right and rong by observing our parents. While as we become of age, it is normal to test the limits, children quickly learn that what is acceptable in their friend’s home may not be in there’s. As the old sayings go “experience is the best teacher”. Culture shapes and influences our perceptions, beliefs as well as ideas about ourselves and others (Sole, 2011). A person’s culture is part of the foundation of who they are, which was crafted by their parents. Parents ultimately make the choice in regards to what their child will be exposed to.

Morals and personal beliefs have a lot to do with each individual’s personal pinion on how to raise their child. What morals they will be taught, as well as other factors such as religion and even down to diet. In American culture when an individual tells you they do not eat pork, the immediate response is usually “Are you Muslim” because the rejection Of swine is highly afflicted with that culture your culture gives you a sense of belonging and ultimately is the basis of your identity. “Who you are is the foundation for all your 1995). There are many different tendencies, traits and demeanors and views that develop who you are.

The vision of how you ee yourself can contribute to how you interact with others. Even though the name is self-esteem this characteristic is also molded by parents. As a girl was constantly told I was pretty, beautiful and special. When I felt vulnerable and as if I hated what I saw in the mirror my parents told me I was beautiful. The consistency/ of hearing these words began to come apart of me. Boosting a child’s self-esteem helps promote a child’s social- emotional development. When a parent cheers a child on and expresses that they are proud, and believe in that child it gives a child a sense of achievement.

They began to believe in themselves and often strive to make their parents proud in their actions. As adults we often reflect on what our parents would say and even feel when we are making decisions. In speeches you often hear the saying ” I am going to make my momma proud” , this is because the sense of achievement we have often times comes from the level of support we receive as children. Cognitive development is shaped as early as infancy and continues throughout the life span. The first people to introduce us to language are our parents. One of the easiest ways to enhance a child’s ognitive learning is to just read and talk to them.

Parents who do not do these basic tasks leave their babies open to developmental delays. Teaching your child language and literacy helps jumps start their learning. The foundation in which a parent establishes for a child will only increase their education. Parents Ideas about the importance of education depicts how you feel about it. If your parents are admit about you doing well and set a standard of excellence, as you grow into an adult that standard of excellence will be evident through you work ethic and success. Jean Piaget theory of ognitive development depicts how parents are responsible for a child’s development.

According to Piaget theory children’s thought processes change as they grow and mature on a physical level. He also suggests that the way children interact and view the world changes during these different stages. The involvement of parents in what their children watch, how the family interacts with each other, what the children are exposed to in their environment are also indicators of how they will behave and what value system they will follow(Hopf,2008). Children who parents allow them to watch iolent shows and play violent games, behave violently are more prone to possess violent behaviors in their lifetime. Long term effects with children are now generally believed to be primarily due to long-term observational learning cognitions supporting aggression whereas short-term effects with adults and children are recognized as also due to priming or imitation of specific behaviors”( Gentile, 2011 The guidelines that are set by parents teach children what is appropriate and what is allowed in their family based on their life style. Even the prejudices and stereotypes we have can be ttributed to our parents since they are learned behaviors, “Young children will not develop biases unless their parents teach them to be prejudiced ( Woolfolk, 2008).

The way our parents feel about certain races and even groups of people often times become our views because we grow up believing them to be true. Parents who teach their children racial stereotypes often program their children to discriminate against those groups , sometimes without words. Children learn through observing and watching their parents’ ways. The Culture theory explains how prejudice IS a part of ulture and how culture taught us all to view certain categories of people as “better” or “worse” than others (Kemick,2010).

Cadbury Report Done Retouched essay

Executive summary This marketing situational analysis was carried out by an independent group of students and was designed to investigate the current condition of Cadbury internally and externally as well as to think of venturing into a new protein based confectionery product line. Overview This report was written in conciseness and clarity to provide insights into Cadbury from the history to the marketing theories they have applied.

The information regarding the internal and external situation of Cadbury and conclusions drawn from the applied marketing theories in this report were ollected and deduced from reading materials such as news articles, textbooks, and related websites. Summary of Result: Cadbury is the world 2nd largest confectionery company. Mondelez operates in 55 countries and has captured 70% chocolate market share in India. Cadbury managed to market its way out of scandal in recent years by venturing into premium chocolate and by showing sensitivity towards a countrys belief and practices.

The growing trend of health- consciousness in the society has pushed Cadbury into introducing an innovative idea of protein-based confectionery product line. CONTENTS 1. 0 Introduction . 0 Market Situation 3 2. 1 Market Competitors 2. 2 Market Segmentation 2. 3 Consumer Behavior 2. 4 Cultural Factors 2. 5 social Factors 2. 6 Personal Factors 2. 7 Psychological Factors 3. 0 product 4. 0 price 5. 0 Place 6. 0 Promotion 7. 0 Process 8. 0 people 7 8 9 10 9. 0 Physical Evidence 4 5 6 10. 0 Competitive Situation 1 1. 0 Macro Environment 11 15 12. 0 Demographic Environment 13. 0 Natural Environment 16 14. 0 Technological Environment 17 15. Cultural Environment 16. 0 Strengths 17. 0 weaknesses 18. 0 Opportunities 19. 0 Threats 18 20 22 23 20. 0 Opportunity Identification 24 21. 0 Conclusion References 27 28 Cadbury is a British multinational confectionery company which is founded by John Cadbury in 1824. Its business has been operating in more than fifty countries all over the world and it’s the second largest confectionary corporations in the world (Cadbury, 2015). In addition, Cadbury has three big types of products which are Bars, Bags and Drinks and their most well-known products are Dairy Milk, Bourneville, Creme Egg, Bourneville, Wispa and Hot Chocolate (Moth, D).

Nowadays Cadbury is well-known in the whole world and their products enjoy a high reputation in various groups of people. Not only ell-known among young people, many old people also get accustomed to this brand. Therefore, Cadbury became amongst the top 500 companies in the world. Upon evaluation of Cadbury’s current products and position in the market, we have evaluated the possibility of venturing into protein-based confectionery products 2. 0 Market situation 2. 1 Market competitors Even though Cadbury locates at a high status in confectionery industry, the level of competition in this industry has been becoming continuously high.

Wrigley Company, Hershey Company and Ferrero Company are its big competitors (Candyindustry, 2015). They compete on making marketing environment force, making price and quality of products. In general, the speed that Cadbury is developing is faster than its competitors. Hence, Cadbury is one of the biggest leaders in confectionery industry. Market Segmentation is defined as a marketing strategy that divides the total product market into the same types of groups of buyers and it is based on needs, characteristics or behaviors (Armstrong, Adam, Denize &KotIer, 201 2, p. 48). Cadburys target market is based on the theory of market segmentation. The segmentation also lets Cadbury find and satisfy the needs heir customers and potential customers (NetMAB, 2010). In addition, the market segmentation can be categorized into four portions which are Geographic, Demographic, Psychographic and Behavioral. Geographic segmentation is defined as dividing companys market into different countries, nations, states and regions. Cadbury divides its business into all over the world in order to let more people figure out their products.

Then, Demographic segmentation is segmented on Age, Gender, Family size, Family lifecycle, Generation, Income, Occupation, Education, Ethnicity, Nationality and Religion. Cadbury put emphasis on these factors and make many related products to fit these factors. Furthermore, Psychographic segmentation is categorized into social class, lifestyle and personality. Cadbury is familiar to their customers who have different social status, lifestyle and personality. So Cadbury is good at catch customers’ psychology and make products to let them satisfied.

Finally, behavioral segmentation divides buyers into segments and it is based on consumer’s attitudes, uses and the responses to a product. Cadbury does well in observing customers’ behaviors to find opportunities of usiness (Armstrong, Adam, Denize , 2012). 2. 3 Consumer behavior Furthermore, consumer behavior issue is important for Cadburys Market. Customers’ motivation is to buy tasty and high-quality products. The taste and quality would also influence their decisions. There are four factors to infl uence consumers behavior. 2. Cultural factors: Cultural factors are coming from the different components related to culture or cultural environment from which the consumer belongs (Armstrong Adam, Denize &KotIer, 201 2, p. 149). Cadbury provides halal chocolate for people in Muslim-majority countries and vegetarian chocolate for vegan (Cadbury, 2015). So these cultural groups influence Cadburys variety of products a lot. Therefore, it makes a win-win result for both customers who want to buy special type Of chocolate and Cadbury which can make more profit from this. . 5 Social Factors: Social classes are defined as groups more or less homogenous and ranked against each other according to a form of social hierarchy (Armstrong, Adam, Denize &Kotler, 201 2, p. 150). People’s statuses and incomes are different. So Cadbury has cheap and expensive chocolate for different people who have ifferent incomes and status. 2. 6 Personal Factors: Decisions and buying behavior are obviously also influenced by the characteristics of each consumer (Armstrong, Adam, Denize , 201 2, p. 152).

Cadbury regards the characteristics of people and they make sweet and bitter chocolate for different characteristics people. 2. 7 Psychological Factors: Among the factors which influencing consumer behavior, psychological factors can be divided into four categories: motivation, perception, learning as well as beliefs and attitudes (The consumer factor, 2015). To increase sales nd encourage consumers to purchase, Cadbury should try to create, make conscious or reinforce a need in the consumer’s mind so that he develops a purchase motivation. He will be much more interested in considering and buy their products.

As said by Kotler (2002), “Marketing mix is the set of marketing tools that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market’. Marketing mix is known as the Seven P’s, which are price, product, place, promotion, personnel, process and physical evidence (Khan, 2014). Marketing Mix is important because it influences the success of the companys marketing strategy. In this part, it will analyze Cadburys marketing mix situation by detailed analyze Cadburys product, price, place, promotion, personnel, process and physical evidence’s situations. . 0 Product Product is some service or good that a firm offers in the market (Khan, 2014). Cadbury produces different types of chocolate products to customers. For example, chocolates that come in bars, mixture boxes and tins, and powdered chocolate drinks (Cadbury, 2014). It also produces chocolate products by use different ingredients, such as vegetarian, dairy-absent, wheat-absent, nut-absent and gluten-absent (Cadbury, 2014). In addition, in different holidays or some special events, it will use special packaging for its products.

For example, the Magical Advent Calendar, the Milk Chocolate Snowman and the Caramel Bell Tree Decorations are all use the Christmas packaging (Cadbury, 2014). According to the above information, it can confirm that Cadbury’s product offering is a combination of goods, services, experiences and ideas because Cadbury provides many different varieties Of products. This can make customers be more loyalty to Cadburys chocolate products because it meets every individual’s preference and taste. In addition, here are some internal and external considerations can affect the products’ price.

Those internal and external considerations are as the following: Internal Considerations: Cost of production The product’s operational life External Considerations: Competitor’s pricing Buying power of customers Special holidays or events (Usually, in some special holidays or events, customers have the strong demand to buy Cadburys chocolate products because they buy it as a gift and give it to their friends. ) The change Of raw materials price Price is the most important factor that determining customer’s satisfaction Khan, 2014). Cadbury has many varieties of chocolate product, it offers different pricing of each product (Bhasin, 2014).

All the products’ prices are affordable to all customers with different income. In fact, Cadbury is using the customer-value based pricing strategy. According to Bhasin (2014), Cadburys dairy chocolate milk product priced in high as well as low variants because the product has a position of gifting and therefore is selling high volumes even at higher prices. Therefore, it can assurne that Cadbury uses the customer-value based pricing strategy because its products are priced on the asis of perceived of the product. 5. 0 Place Place refers to the availability of the product to the targeted customers (Khan, 2014).

Cadburys product can be bought in different supermarkets in Singapore, which are 7-Eleven, Cheers, Cold Storage, Giant, Guardian, NIIJC Fairprice, Sheng Siong and Watsons (Cadbury Glow, 2015). Cadburys distribution channels include the manufacturing warehouses where the chocolate production takes place. The first distribution channel is manufacturer, then wholesaler, then retailer (Cadbury, 2014). This shows that Cadbury is using the conventional marketing channel. 6. Promotion Khan (2014) reported that “promotion is a vital part of business and is an integral ingredient of the total marketing process”.

Also, promotion as a selling technique should be involved with communication. Cadbury has used a large number of advertising to promote its products in order to reach its target audience. They first type of Cadburys advertisements is put up the advertisement posters on the public areas. As figure 1, this advertisement poster uses the phrase ‘creme egg season 1st Jan – 4th of April’ to highlight that creme eggs are available for a limited period and ‘here today, goo omorrow to suggest that they will be gone soon. Cadbury used this poster to tell its customers that the number of creme eggs will be limited.

In addition, Cadbury also put the advertisements in different television channel. Figure 1 – Creme Egg Advertisement (Luke, 201 3) 7. 0 process Khan (2014) asserted that process is generally defined as the implementation of action and function that increases value for products with low cost and high advantage to customer and is more important for service than for goods. There are three main points in the process Of creating, delivering and onsumption that serve as ‘moments of truth’ for customers to determine their satisfaction level which are the technological process, electronic point- of-sale and indirect activities.

In Cadburys caser the technological process refers to produce chocolates with absence of ingredients that consumers are most commonly allergic to (Cadbury, 2014). The electronic point-of-sale refers to the barcodes printed on packaging quickens the process of checking out at the cashier. The indirect activities refer to interacting with consumers via social media and organizing competitions on social media platforms for ustomers to set up an opportunity to win prizes (Cadbury, 2014). . 0 People It seems that Cadbury’s staffs have not got a lot of interactions with customers in Singapore because Cadbury sends its products to the retailers to help them to sell it. Therefore, the customers have interactions with the retailers’ staffs but not Cadbury. 9. 0 Physical Evidence Khan (2014) revealed that physical evidence refers to the environment in which the service and any tangible goods that facilitate the performance and communication of the service are delivered.

Although Cadbury has not got ny direct store in Singapore, however, it carefully uses the blue color and obvious brand logo to design all the sales counters which placed in the retailers’ Store in order to build a environment which full with Cadburys feeling (as Figure 2). This as a physical evidence can shows a Cadbury environment to all the customer thereby facilitate the performance and communication of its service. Figure 2 – Cadbury Sales Counter Design (The Mooide Report, 201 3) 10. Competitive Situation As quoted by the renowned philosopher Heraclitus, “the only thing that is constant is change” (Heraclitus, 500B. C. is inevitably true and still is relevant even after 2 millennia. The trend of the world is ever changing as much as the needs and wants of people are ever growing. Being in the industry specifically the confectionery industry is no exception, the constant change in taste and preference of consumers is relatively difficult to be fathomed out even for the big well-established companies, let alone new entrants.

Having said so, Cadbury is undoubtedly creditable for its ability to survive and breakthrough to being the world 2nd largest confectionery company. With that being said, Cadbury has earned its place by standing out in the ompetitive situation within the industry, and will be further discussed and analyzed. The history of Cadbury stretches back Into year 1824, back then it was a mere grocer shop in Birmingham, however in the 21st century, Cadbury has ventured into various markets, operating in more than 55 countries worldwide. In terms of size, Cadbury proudly stood at 14. % of market share, followed closely by Mars at 14. 6% (Reuters, 2009). Cadbury has had a good start of the year earning 47cents per share into the second month of 2015 (Athavaley and Sharma, 2015). This is also contributed y the open innovation used by the Cadbury team to ensure competitive advantage by collaborating with external partners to find improvements they could bring to the market. For instance, Cadbury collaborated with King’s College, London who then conducted a research project to develop and validate the characterization of the physiochemical attributes of chocolate.

This collaboration has not only brought benefits from the invention itself, but also serves as a publication for Cadbury, spreading good words about them regarding how they are giving opportunities to the local students for a more practical exercise in the form of education. Product quality is vital to ensure the survival and success of a firm, as for Cadbury, the quality not only serves as a significant identity to its brand, it also carries the heart-filled sincerity the Cadbury team hopes to bring across to each and every customers.

According to the recent research conducted by the BBC team in conjunction with the current issue faced by Cadbury where a petition has been Signed by more than 37,000 people to boycott Hershey’s, which has the licensee to produce Cadbury chocolate in the US, and regards imported British-made Cadbury chocolate as a trademark infringement (Metz, 01 5), 5 out of the 6 people who participated in the chocolate tasting rated Cadbury as better than average, while Hersheys has only got 2 out of 6 people.

Comparatively speaking the quality of Cadbury products is one of the top in the industry, though they may not be as positively publicized as the competitors. Other than that, despite being a multinational company, Cadbury is sensitive towards practices and respectful of the difference in culture in each and every country. Look into Malaysia as an example, the incident where porcine DNA crisis scandal floods Cadbury Malaysia, making its way to the eadlines. Cadbury faced this problem with total transparency, participative and cooperative in each test and experiment until the truth is brought to light.

After months of struggle, efforts have paid off; Cadbury products are proven to be opposed as what has been claimed. Despite knowing that Cadbury is safe to be consumed by all ethnicities especially the Muslims, however very unfortunately the damage has been done to the reputation of Cadbury Malaysia. Most difficult part is what is beyond the control of Cadbury when people jump into their own conclusions and question the integrity of Cadbury as a company. Just as the battle seems unending, there comes an opportunity knocking on the door when the government authorities declared the GST to be imposed nationwide.

Mondelez Malaysia has then decided and promised not to add the Goods and Services Tax (GST) to the product prices when it comes into effect on the 1st of April 201 5 (Bingeman, 2015). This statement made by the Managing Director of Mondelez Malaysia is significantly comforting as the nation in Malaysia is deeply troubled by this issue, concerned about the increase in the cost of living. With the mentioned strategy, Cadbury has then been able to market its way out of the pork hocolate scandal and rebuild its reputation as well as the customer relationship and loyalty.

Moving on, there are also 2 marketing theories that should not be neglected, those are Points-of-difference (POD) where the aspects of the product offering that are relatively distinct to the offerings of like competitors and the points-of-parity (POP) which is the aspects of the product offering that are largely similar to the offerings of like competitors. In order to understand this better we must look into the case of Cadbury and its market positioning. The Cadbury consumers are of different ethnicity and age roup.

Market positioning is not apparent, as the goal was to cater to every single individual in the market, from Christians to Muslims, toddlers to elderly. The POP has been adopted by Cadbury since the beginning. However in recent months, Cadbury has decided to go for the point of difference approach by breaking into the premium chocolate market, by introducing ‘Cadbury GloW. This product made its global debut in India where the Cadbury has captivated 70% of the chocolate market share, loved by many as not only is it premium, also it offers customization, causing consumers to feel pecial and more attached to the purchased product 1 1. Macro- environment Macro-environment is an important part in Marketing and organization’s macro-environment decides organization’s marketing strategies. In general, this part talks about main forces in the Cadbury Organization’s Macro- environment. The force can be categorized into demographic forces, natural forces, technological Forces and cultural forces. These forces cause the decline of sales for Cadbury. 12. 0 Demographic environment For marketers, the demographic environment is a major interest because it includes people, and people who consist of markets.

Changes in the world demographic environment have major implications for business. There are many potential consequences for organizations when there are some changes happen in population demographics. As a result of the changes in total population, the demand for products and services would also change a lot (Armstrong, Adam, Denize &Kotler, 201 2, p. 80). A main target market for Cadbury is children and young adults. They are the group of people who are keen on buying Candy and chocolate.

But nowadays, with the aging population problem occurs, especially in some regions where Cadbury owns a ig market, the number of people who want to buy Cadburys products is decreasing. Old people usually do not like eating chocolate and Candy. Therefore, there is a big influence for Cadburys sales. Furthermore, Chocolate is defined as junk food by many people. There is a possible problem comes in is with the ingredients that are added to the chocolate. For instance, milk chocolate contains as much or even more sugar than actual chocolate.

And candy bars often contain a variety of other ingredients, some healthy, like nutsr some not so healthy, like caramel which is melted sugar and artificial ingredients. Such chocolate products would not be healthy foods (Zeolla, G. , 2012). As many of Cadburys products are regarded as junk food, it causes the decline of their sales. 13. 0 Natural environment The natural environment is another important factor of the macro- environment. It includes the natural resources which a corporation uses as inputs in order to influence their marketing activities.

The concern in this area is the increased pollution, shortages of raw materials and the increased governmental intervention. As raw materials become increasingly scarcer, the ability for company to create a product has been getting much more difficult. Similarly, pollution can make such a big influence and bring a big damage to a company’s reputation if they do not pay attention to the environment. The last concern, government Intervention can make it increasingly harder for a company to achieve their goals like the requirements that they set previously (Rust, R. T. , Lemon, K. N. & Zeithaml, V. 2004, p. 109). Pollution is an issue to confectionery productions. Cadbury has to increase their safety procedures as there have been many occasions where its products were infected by microorganisms. As long as the ingredients of Cadburys products re not polluted, consumers could safely purchase their products. Furthermore, the proportion which Cadbury occupies in a country is limited. Some country starts emphasize more on other industries such as cotton, wine and husbandry and there are many reasons cause this situation such as urbanization and industrialization.

If the proportion of Cadbury occupies in a country decrease, their sales will also decrease. 14. 0 Technological environment The technological environment is perhaps one of the fastest changing factors in the macro-environment. It includes all developments from antibiotics and urgery to nuclear missiles and chemical weapons to automobiles and credit cards. As these markets develop it can create new markets and new uses for products. It requires a company to keep their advantages which other company do not have and update their own technology in order to avoid recession.

They have to keep pace on trends so they can get ready for next important step and they would not become old-fashioned and suffering the financial consequences (Armstrong, Adam, Denize , 201 2, p. 92). It’s no surprise to find out that Cadbury has established separate Facebook pages to xhibit its most popular products such as Dairy Milk, Wispa, Crame Egg, Bourneville and Hot Chocolate (Moth, D. , 2013). However, although Cadbury has established Facebook page, they do not do enough publicity. There are not many people notice their Facebook page.

Therefore, although they did well for their Facebook page, there are seldom people see it and it is helpless for their sales. 15. 0 Cultural environment The cultural environment consists of institutions and other forces which influence a society’s behaviors, basic values, perceptions and preferences. Sometimes even within a country or in different countries, there are ubstantial differences in attitudes, beliefs, motivation, morality, superstition, and perception, as well as other characteristics (Armstrong Adam, Denize , 2012, p. 7). According to different people’s needs, Cadbury has halal chocolate for Muslim-majority country people. However, Cadbury Malaysia recalled two of its chocolate products after they tested positive for pork DNA, according to Reuters. Malaysia is a majority of Muslims and they do no consume products which contain pork DNA- Therefore Cadbury in Malaysia has to make sure chocolate products are Halal before distributing to the arket there.

Cadbury in Malaysia always tests food products to ensure that they are halal, Or in compliance with Islamic dietary restrictions (Hallowell, 2014). If Cadbury does not make suitable products to satisfy the people’s needs, based on their culture, it would directly cause an impact on the sales and cause it to decline. 16. 0 Strengths Cadbury is the world’s leader in the production and distribution of chocolates and they are known to have the best manufacturing and one of the widest channels of distribution. Cadbury is present in over 200 countries. (Hitesh Bhasin, n. d.

Social Work Theory And Methods Comparison Table essay

Focus on patterns rather than “cause and effect” – allows for different ways of getting to the desired outcome. Sees worker as part of a system of change rather than solely responsible – may lend itself to multi-disciplinary work. Does not explain why things happen or give guidance about how to act to bring about change. May overemphasise “bigger picture” at the expense of details. Values maintenance and integration over conflict – may not explicitly challenge inequality. Does not encourage challenge Of oppressive systems.

Ecological Approach Germain and Gitterman – “Life model” (1980 / 1 996) -people are nterdependent with each other and their environment – each influences the other over time. People move through their own unique life course and may encounter “stressors” – some of which may make them feel they cannot cope. People employ coping mechanisms and draw on resources in the environment, social networks and inner resources. Acknowledgement of interrelationship between person and environment. Consideration of a range of resources to support people ” both internal and external. As above.

Task Centred Approach Brief work within explicit time limits Collaborative approach between worker and sen. ice user – based on a contract. Systematic work Includes some behavioural ideas but mainly a cognitive approach Usual to take action to get what you want Action guided by beliefs about self and world Time-limits help motivate service users People may “get stuck” if they have to deal with a certain issue over and over Problems defined as “unsatisfied wants” Clear and straightforward Short timescale may help people feel more committed Well supported by research Service users supported to take control of own life.

Can increase service user’s coping skills to deal with issues in the future. Strengths based approach which assumes that service users can overcome problems with the right support. Not effective where there are longer-term psychological issues Not effective where service user doesn’t accept the right of the agency to be involved. May oversimplify issues people face Some people may be too overwhelmed by the issues they face to have the energy to address them. Does not really address power differentials between service user and worker.

May not address structural issues of power and oppression Crisis Intervention Brief intervention – deals with immediate issues rather than longer term roblems Based on ego-psychology and cognitive-behavioural models – serious events have an impact on the way people think about themselves and their emotional reactions Assumes we live in “steady state” – able to cope with change Crises upset the steady state and provide opportunity to improve skills / risk of failure Period of disorganised thinking / behaving Crises can reawaken unresolved issues from the past but offer a chance to correct non-adjustment to past events.

Help people to deal with major events or life transitions Can incorporate other theories – solution-focussed / cognitive-behavioural Time-limited and task-focussed. May not help people who experience “continual crises” Does not address issues around poverty or social exclusion Cognitive-behavioural approach / Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Rather than being an “insight based therapy” it uses techniques from behaviourism, social learning theory and cognitive theory. Based on the assumption that our thoughts, beliefs, images and attitudes influence our behaviour and if these are changed, our behaviour will change. Self-talk” reinforces irrational thinking. Involves identifying and reframing unhelpful beliefs. Worker teaches service user to challenge own beliefs. Can involve modifying behaviour using a system of rewards. Use of ABC system – activating event – belief ” consequence and Ellis (1962) extends to DEF – Dispute beliefs, replace beliefs with Effective rational belief, describe the Feelings which will be the result. Many empirical studies to suggest effectiveness (although evidence around degree of effectiveness is disputed. Can be used to support service users to increase their problem solving skills and coping skills. Effective over a wide range of issues. Directive approach Starts from the assumption of deficit, ie the service user is lacking something. Requires a high level of knowledge and skill to apply. Focussed on the presenting issues rather than addressing causes. “Much behaviour may be perceived to be emotionally driven and irrational, when it represents.. a rational response to very upsetting and disturbing experiences. Lindsay, 2009) Doesn ‘t take account of socio-economic factors. Motivational Interviewing Applied form of CBT, developed by Miller and Rollnick (1 991, 2002) defined as “a person-centred directive method for enhancing an intrinsic motivation to hange by exploring and resolving ambivalence. ” Worker adopts an empathic and non-confrontational approach but worker is directive. Worker is alert to language person uses and looks for language of change. Worker provides education / information about situation the service user is in (e. g. ffects of smoking / drinking alcohol / taking drugs etc) Worker encourages service user to list benefits and costs Of lifestyle and alternative lifestyles Explore barriers to goals Reframe past events – focus on more positive aspects. Supported by an understanding of the cycle of change (Prochaska and DiCIemente 1 986) [Pre-contemplation / contemplation / decision / active changes / maintenance / lapse. Accepts change must come from intrinsic motivation and cannot be forced upon people. Supports people to explore their ambivalence around change. Accepts that people may “lapse” but this is part of learning process.

Usage and research around effectiveness have been largely around addictive behaviours Solution-Focussed Approach Cognitive approach Focus on understanding solutions rather than on problems Originates from Milwaukee Centre for Brief Therapy Post-modern therapy based on theories of language and meaning. Uses knowledge of service users Avoids diagnostic labelling – considers this disempowering Focus on difference and exceptions Person is not the problem Assessment based on strengths not deficits Talking can construct experience Distinction between “problems” and “unhappy situations. Problems can be addressed, “unhappy situations” have to be coped with. Encourages sense of “personal agency. ” Co-operative therapy with a wide application Emphasis on listening to the service user’s story Seek solutions with the service user’s life Can fit with anti-oppressive practice and be empowering. Least intrusive – takes easiest route to solutions Reduces risk of “dependency” on worker. Optimistic approach which assumes change is possible. Time limited.

May not fit with agency’s own procedures May not be suitable for people who have difficulty responding to questions Feminist critique of language being constructed by men therefore language not reflecting women’s experience. Approach of understanding solution without understanding problem could be misunderstood Focus on behaviour and perception rather than feelings may limit efficacy. May not be effective ith people in crisis or people with very low self-esteem who may not accept that they have strengths and skills.

Person Centred Approach (nb different to Person-Centred Care) Based on the work of Carl Rogers Sets out the principles of empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard as necessary in the helping relationship. Non-directive approach Based on the idea that everyone has the capacity to develop and grow. Allows people to find their own way in their own time. Values all forms Of experience. Resists temptation to criticise people. Emphasis on building an equal and meaningful working relationship with ervice users. Widely applicable across service user groups.

Affirms the dignity and worth of all people Role of SW may not allow for non-directive approach. Not a time-limited approach. Difficult to apply if service user not motivated to engage. Focuses on individual change rather than societal factors, although allows individuals to express their own goals which may not be the agenda of mainstream society. Psychosocial Model Based on the idea that people have inner worlds and outer realities. Certain events remind us of past events we have tried to block out. Events can take n greater emotional significance.

People develop in a series of stages and “faulty personality development” in childhood can affect our responses later in life. Draws on “personality theory” – id, ego, superego and looks at defence mechanisms. Considers “defence mechanisms” we deploy to protect the ego. Can help with recurring emotional problems Way of understanding seemingly “irrational” behaviour Emphasises the importance of self-awareness. Influenced a listening, accepting attitude in social workers People can be empowered by insight into what is going on within themselves and between hemselves and the outside world.

Focussed on a medical model of individual pathology. Tends to ignore issues of power and oppression. Social workers act as “mini-psychoanalysts” – use of clinical jargon. Tendency to focus on cause and effect. Can lead to service users being labelled – “inadequate”, “narcissistic”, “manipulative”, “resistant” and can lead to victim blaming. May not be culturally appropriate – based on valuing self-growth and self-awareness which are not norms shared across all cultures. Recovery Model Model used in Mental Health services which emphasises recovery rather than llness.

Recovery does not necessarily mean being “symptom-free” but regaining a sense of control and purpose Not being defined by a label or diagnosis. Recognises strengths of the individual. Open to possibilities for the future – return to employment or education. Individuals viewed as experts in their own situation. Positive approach which attempts to give control back to the person. Can challenge authority Of medical profession and thus not be accepted / implemented in some MH services. Currently mainly used in MH services – but could have broader applicability. Narrative Approach

SW encourages the person to describe their life in their own words. Opportunity to tell their story, an in the process define identity. SW can support the person to feel in control of the narrative and draw their attention to the possibility of a different narrative for the future. Can help people understand the pressures they have faced and the impact of discrimination and oppression. Can help people make sense of change and adjust to new situations. SWs may see the discussion as “rambling” or “off the point” and try to cut off the person’s narrative. The person or their family may ask for a solution” and not see the value in the approach.

LESSON PLAN treasure hunt essay

Setting: Nursery (garden) Ability to concentrate long enough to be able to listen question and answer it Ability to read simple map Observation skills sufficient enough to be able to perform the guessing/ exploring activities Advance Preparation for the Lesson: – practice the activity and check that all required resource are available before making presentation to the child/ children; ensure that chosen activity is appropriate to the age of child/ children. Step by Step Guidelines: This is a group presentation Introduce the activity at the circle time, name it and link to the child’s prior earning (if appropriate) Invite children to garden Name the activity: Treasure hunt 1 .

Teacher at the circle time will introduce activity to the children and will explain that activity will be in the garden 2. Older group – butterflies 20 children will be divided between 4 teachers to be taken in the garden 3. Teacher before activity is to start will hang on visible place in the garden little envelops with questions and also will hide treasure (chocolate coins) according to map 4. Each teacher takes group of the children in the garden and start treasure hunt 5. By answering to each question children are moving loser to treasure 6. When all questions are answered children start to read map which will lead them to treasure (chocolate coins) 7. The child carries on this way until all he/she is happy to do activity 8.

Teacher should bear in mind that children at this age may will not know the sequence of the activity, but teacher should lead child until final aim 9. If the children wishes to continue, they may do so, but otherwise, this presentation can be undertaken on another occasion Differentiation: – This activity may be difficult/hard to manage if child does not have previous eneral knowledge about different objects/animals/plants from everyday life , or if he/she does not have any knowledge about treasure hunt and what is it mean – This activity is fun and simple and requires verbal communication, and may be difficult to children with hearing problems, speech delays, or children whose first language is different to that used in the settings.

Implementation of the Lesson: Children’s name: Older group of children – Butterflies Children’s age: Between 3 years old and 5 years old At the circle time teacher tells children that today we are going in treasure hunt in the garden. She explains children that they will be divided into four groups and they will go in the garden to look for little envelopes open them and with teacher’s help read the question and try answer it. If they correctly answer question they Will move on other one. After children answered all questions correctly in last envelope will be hidden treasure map which will lead them to the treasure. After it children are getting ready for their treasure hunt. Each teacher takes her group of children in the garden and activity starts.

They all together looking for the envelop hanging on the trees and looking for the questions. Some of the questions are: 1. What colour starts with r? 2. What comes after 4? 3. What animal is a pink and has curly tail? 4. What can you cut paper with? Most ofthe children easily answer those and similar questions which in the end lead them to last envelop where is hiding treasure map. Once when children open the map they can see main points that will help them to find treasure. Some of the pointes are tree, bush, sandpit etc. Children are already very familiar with those objects in the garden and they are going to look around them for treasure.

With such excitement very quickly children reach reasure but even more happy they become when they discover that treasure is chocolate coins. After activity is completed children will go back to the classroom with their teachers. Evaluation of the Implementation: The direct objective of the activity was going into Treasure hunt by following clues (answering on the questions from all different curriculum areas – general knowledge) appropriate to their age. I felt that activity gave children opportunity to explore and understand that general knowledge helps them in discovering more and to have fun in the same time. They were confident in nswering questions, reading map and finally finding treasure. Activity itself was not tricky for children.

They were happy to do activity and very confidently they answered on each question which led them to the very end – treasure. Engaging children in this particular activity, and their repeating the action time and time again, they began to control movement of their actions. feel that the freedom given to children to explore this activity, gave me opportunity to present outdoor activity by using concrete materials. By using this concrete exploration we are building the foundation for later abstract hinking and knowledge (MCI, 2009). Every another time they do similar outdoor activity, their intellectual energy employed new interest in surprising amount of work (Montessori, 2007b).

Looking at children’s pleasure when they start treasure hunt, and giving me a big smiles after admiring their success – is good evidence which showed their confidence and self-esteem had been supported. I feel that the freedom given to children to explore this activity on their own was crucial to achieving this ‘aim’. I haven’t interrupted their work, but did suggested when it was necessary to complete the cycle of he activity ” helping them to read questions. A child was urged on to act by his own inside drives and no longer by me (Montessori, 2007a). Many times, outdoor activities are seen as just go and play, I feel confident with children’s pleasure to do this particular activity and I hope that this will take them on the great journey of even more planned outdoor activities.

Outdoor activities are fun ” we need to offer many different ways to prepare the children for exploring their outdoor environment through general knowledge, ways which engage the mind and the body to intensify the experience. Overall, children ere focussed on their task until very end, and activity supported their ongoing development of concentration. I think that activity met the aims set out. Personal Learning/Refiection: Before start to plan activity I thought it will be tricky for me to choose an appropriate outdoor activity that is new and that will be interesting to children. Reading and working on my lesson plan I found it very enjoyable and not very complicated so I could not wait to present lesson. Also now I feel more confident with activities that engage body and mind.

Art Formal Analysis essay

Professor Ferris Williams Art History 2 December 2013 For my Formal Analysis decided to choose the painting that Fridah Kahlo did in 1946 entitled “The Little Deer”. When examining this piece of work I see the deer jumping and running through the forest in action. The deer has a female human style face which is somewhat interesting because Kahlo uses the same type face when doing self-portraits of herself. When viewing this piece I see the arrows striking the deer and blood running out and the dull face that the deer/human has which at first sends a tone as sorrow or pain or ome kind Of struggle.

In the back ground we see the ocean with what seems to be daytime but also a lightning storm going on which gives me a little different look at it. chose this piece of work because it honestly just caught my eye when flipping through the book. I am an outdoorsy type person who enjoys action type things with passion in them and this piece just seems to fit my personality to key. By viewing this piece, Kahlo uses a tree line on both sides of the deer running all the way to the back ground like a “trail” of some sort leading to the cean where the storm is happening.

Kahlo uses this as the “vanishing point” in the work by making it the brightest area on this work of art. Kahlo directs our eyes to the vanishing point by using these tree lines on both sides and the “trail” like path, which leads back to where the ocean starts in the background which also gives a type of “balance” to this work of art which will be discussed later on. Kahlo doesnt use very smooth linear strokes with this piece which doesn’t give certain things nice tight edges. Such as the trees or the tree branches or he antlers of the deer or even the arrows really just don’t seem to have much of a “precise” type work to it.

The linear structure of the fallen branch in the very front, also with the vertical trees all in parallel lines on both sides as well as the deer which seems to maybe be running down the trail all sends our eyes as a viewer once again to where the vanishing point is with the piece. With the trees, arrows, antlers, trail, and even the storm in the background give an example of multiple vertical brushstrokes with what seems to me to e a very heavy impasto like painting with all of the dark colors of the deer, trees or pathway that eventually lead to a brighter side in the “vanishing point”.

Kahlo’s choice of colors for the trees, the deer, or the arrows striking the deer captures much detail, with the brown of the deer and the red implying “blood” Of the arrows piercing through the deer. The colors eventually get lighter and brighter as you get further into the piece but I feel as though Kahlo is still giving a “sorroW’ or disturbed type image with all of the dark olors and shades but even though the blue of the ocean and sky that gives brightness to this piece, there is still a yellow stroke of a lightning storm that seems to dull the mood back to how it was.

By using the line of trees surrounding the trail and the very tight view of the ocean in the back, Kahlo doesn’t imply much of “space’ in this piece. This gives a very closed image with not much room for anything else. Kahlo uses a linear perspective by once again using the tree line and trail behind the deer towards the ocean and storm. This type of tight space used and linear erspective used is what obviously makes the deer the focal point of this piece, which also leads to the symbolism feel as though Kahlo is trying to give off.

Kahlo was a part of a bus accident which left her troublesome the rest of her life. Her worst end of the injury was to her neck and spinal area, and I feel as though the first arrow on the far left which is the bloodiest is what Kahlo is using to symbolize that injury which happens to also be on the deer neck and spinal area. There are a total of 9 arrows in the deer which also believe she uses to symbolizes other sicknesses or injuries that she ontinued to have throughout her life, but her face used in this piece symbolizes great strength that she has to be able to have to endure such pain and also 35 operations.

The material used for this art work is oil on canvas. This oil paint technique used with Masonite as the material. This piece is 100% handmade oil based painting on canvas with no digital or printing of images used in it. This process of painting is used with different pigments bound with drying oil. This type of painting is usually used with a paint brush and stays wet longer than thers would, which allows the artist to be able to go back and make changes such as color, shape, or texture.

This technique is broadly used throughout the world and one of the most popular choices by artists and has been for a long time. In conclusion, I initially viewed this piece as something that was symbolizing hatred or a violent type of meaning, but now that I have viewed it over and over again and studied upon it and the artist I now understand its purpose. I feel as though this piece is a fantastic self-portrait she has done to symbolize the events that have taken place in her life. This piece used illustrates everything she has been through in my opinion.

The main bloodiest arrow in my opinion illustrates her bus accident and the other 8 arrows illustrate the post effects she went through after it such as the operations, sicknesses or diseases. My favorite part of this piece though would have to be the facial expression she puts on the deer. Even though all the bad things and situations that she went through and that continued to stay with her, she symbolizes her strength and passion to stay the course and keep moving forward without giving up.


The concept of risk in essential to change, innovation and the uccess of the organisation as you have to take a gamble at wether your change is going to be a success for your company. There is no risk without change and no change without risk. They come hand in hand. What is your organisation’s attitude toward failure, mistakes and/or lack of success at the organisational level and the personal or individual level? Organisational level: The attitude toward failure or mistakes is a positive one. You record what happened, what went wrong and what we could do better as a whole organisation next time.

Personal/lndividual level: The attitude toward failure or mistakes on a personal level is also a positive one. You self evaluate and make a new goal for yourself and try and better your individual outcome next time. How does this make you feel with regard to making suggestions, proposing new ideas or attempting to develop new products, services or markets? Seeing as the attitude towards mistakes is a positive one, it makes me feel as though I can voice my opinions and not have to worry too much about failure.