Communication Barriers and Workplace Productivity essay

Communication is important in business. Exceptional communication skills among employees lie at the core of a productive workplace. These communication skills help to persuade, motivate, and influence customers and coworkers alike. In this paper, we will discuss why communication is important and the skills an effective worker uses to communicate effectively. What makes a person a good coworker within business? His or her ability to communicate; which is one of the most basic job requirements in most industries.

If a person cannot communicate with his employer, coworkers, or customers, he is at a major disadvantage. Cultural Barrier There are many barriers that can hinder communication. A cultural barrier is damaging in modern business due to the fact that we are rapidly becoming a global society. As of 2014, businesses statistics report 1 1. 4% of our total work force are African American, and 16. 1 % are Hispanic compared to data from 201 2 (marchionesses. Org). As of 201 1, white males made up a whopping 74% of leadership in business (USC. Deed).

Due to the large cultural gap between leader, employee, and coworker, it’s important to be able to communicate on a cultural level in the workplace. Cultural barriers can come n the form of stereotypes, spoken language, or even body language. Language barriers are often seen in “bypassing”, or, using words that are too complicated or different to understand. People within the workplace come from all walks of life, and that includes varying education levels. Using words that are too formal for your message is counterproductive to communication.

Likewise, using too many slang words, or workplace jargon may cause more confusion than communication. All cultures have their own version of slang words with different meanings which can turn an innocent phrase into something quite offensive to another culture. Stereotypes are generally positive or hostile assumptions about a different culture or gender. Stereotypes limit the amount of information we can receive from another person, and prevent others from reaching their full potential in the workplace.

When you begin a conversation with a coworker that you have a negative stereotype about, you are automatically choosing to disvalues the information they provide during your exchange. A stereotype, whether positive or negative, automatically builds a wall between you and them. Differences in language may change the interpretation of certain words or harass, which puts both parties at a disadvantage. The cultural barrier extends beyond spoken words. Even body language can cause miscommunication.

For example, simply nodding your head yes, with an up and down motion, could mean no to someone of Bulgarian descent (stegosauruses. About. Com). If any of these barriers are present, efficiency, productivity, and the sharing of knowledge are all compromised. Perceptual barriers are equally as damaging as cultural ones. Think of Joe, a Harvard graduate who runs a small company in the deep-south. Recently, a few of Joey’s best employees left to pursue different careers. He hired three new people, one of whom was a Catawba graduate, and the other two were also Harvard graduates.

As the years passed, all three employees made equally significant contributions to Joey’s company. The two Harvard graduates’ contributions have been recognized much more than the poor Catawba graduate’s. This was due to Joey’s perception that Harvard graduates work harder, he failed to recognize the contributions of the Catawba graduate. This means the Catawba alumnus will have to work twice as hard as the Harvard alumni in order to receive noticed or praise. Joe doesn’t expect much UT of the Catawba grad because of his perceptual barrier.

Poor Language Skills Barrier Poor language skills are perhaps one of the most detrimental barriers to communication. They are a contributing factor to lower wages in the workplace, frustration with coworkers and superiors, and decreased productivity. Immigrant workers, whose first language is other than English, experience a multitude of communication issues. According to the 2003 IIS Census, at the turn of the 21st century, 12% of the labor force was immigrant. Those job statistics revealed that of those immigrant workers: 2% – service industry 18. – factories, laborers 12. 6% – construction, mechanics, repairs Salaries are lower than IIS born individuals whose first language is English Low representation in management and leadership positions Several studies have been conducted, including those from Stanford university and Indiana university, which suggest that children of lower income households including those whose parents are less educated are more likely to raise children with weaker vocabulary and language skills.

Studies followed toddlers 18 months old to 24 months old, from both lower socioeconomic backgrounds and from those in more advantaged households and found that the toddlers in the lower socioeconomic households learned 30% fewer words in the six-month period. Further studies revealed children of kindergarten age raised in lower socioeconomic homes were nearly two years behind on standardized development tests and that parents who use mature language (as opposed to baby-talk) with their babies and young children give them the opportunity to learn faster.

Another interesting study revealed that children with poor early language skills may later develop behavioral and attention issues. The study suggests that having poor language skills limits the ability to control behavior which can lead to Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADD), as well as academic and social problems in adolescence and adults. Some ways Cultures. Mom suggests overcoming language barriers include: Speaking slowly and clearly (annunciate and slow down speech) Ask for clarification if you are unsure (do not assume) Check for understanding frequently (get feedback that he/she understands) Limit the use of jargon Avoid idioms Define basics of business (provide glossary of business terms within an organization) Be specific when giving instructions (don’t use vague terms such as ‘soon, ‘shortly’) Choose communication channel effectively use multiple channels (follow up with phone call after email, etc. Be patient – cross-cultural communication takes more time Emotional Barrier There is one universal language we all experience: emotion. Everyone in the work place has a different attitude. One person may be a very sensitive and shy person, and the next might be a very outspoken and abrupt person. Taking these different personalities into consideration, there are emotional aeries that must be recognized in the work place. Every person has a different childhood and has different influences throughout their lives.

No two people are the same, and that means no two people will react the same to any given message. Thus, it is important in the work environment to maintain a positive tone, no matter what, by setting personal emotions aside. Workers who set emotions aside and treat everyone with a positive tone promote a safe and stable environment, thereby increasing productivity. For example, let’s consider John, the very abrupt and loud boss. That’s just the ay he IS, but John’s assistant Maria is a very quiet, shy, and sensitive person.

In order to avoid any kind of emotional disturbance, John makes sure to maintain a calm and positive tone when speaking to Maria. Maria gets more work done and is happier when things aren’t so stressful in the workplace. Although these two have very different personalities, they are communicating effectively because they are adapting to each-others differences. To overcome emotional barriers, the best thing that can be done is to remain aware and alert. Be aware of the feelings that have arisen within ourselves and others and try to control them, or diffuse the situation.

Always make sure the message is decoded the way it was meant; ask questions! When a person is upset they tend to say things they may not mean, and likewise, when we are upset ourselves we tend not to listen thoroughly. Try to recognize the emotions you are feeling and determine whether or not they belong in the current situation. In the work place, 9 times out of 10 the answer IS no. Most companies have policies against relationships in the workplace. Emotional disturbances are much more common when two coworkers are involved in an intimate relationship.

It may be very difficult for a worker to communicate effectively if there is a problem within their relationship. Implementing a company policy banning relationships among coworkers reduces emotional barriers in communication, thus improving productivity. Another policy companies’ implement to reduce barriers is the open door policy. An open door policy is usually set so that workers can come forward to management if there is ever an uncomfortable situation that they need to talk about. It ensures to employees that their issues are kept confidential and it builds trust between worker and department.

Listening Barrier Listening also represents a communication barrier. Listening, like communication is a learned behavior, so we can learn to overcome the obstacles that interfere with our listening effectiveness in order to succeed in workplace communication. In other words, we can either choose to be an effective listener by keeping an open mind towards whatever we hear, or create barriers that will hinder effective listening, thereby making listening so much more complicated than hearing.

The factors that make listening much complicated are consideration of the topic or the speaker as either interesting r uninteresting, criticizing the speaker instead of the message, concentrating on details, instead of main ideas, avoiding difficult listening situations, tolerating or failing to adjust to distractions, and faking attention. Listening, when taken for granted becomes much more complicated, for instance deciding that a subject/topic or speaker is uninteresting or boring.

This is like having a perception of something negatively; our perception definitely affects our behavior towards that thing or person. It simply means that the level of interest and the amount of importance we place on a subject or speaker usually govern how much effort we put into listening. An example would be a supply coordinator, who is seen by a lot of co-workers as careless and unfocused, so a lot of interns placed in her department make up their minds before each day that it’s going to be as usual, with such attitude believe they will never understand her when she is teaching because they hardly listen to it.

The difference between hearing and listening is understanding. Consequently we tend to criticize the speaker instead of the message, this happens when we focus on the superficial elements of a person’s delivery style or appearance. Most time in the office for example, people hardly listen to instruction when a manager is talking, we are concentrating on the superficial makeup of the manager, their mismatched shirt and tie, bizarre earrings, or the speakers’ facial expressions that they miss the message. All of these would be considered “noise”.

Another is our concentrating on unimportant details such as the temperature in the room, definitions, figures, and locations assuming that they are important to know instead of focusing on important ideas. Listening could also be much more complicated when we allow distractions to disrupt our concentration. As listeners we have the innate ability to adjust to, compensate for, or eliminate distractions and focus on speakers and their messages. One morning I was cooking and studying, while my family was talking.

My concentration was on what was reading and din ;t know my food was burning. Some distractions must be overcome through mental rather than physical efforts. We at times pretend to pay attention to someone or something. This we do a lot of time at work, we appear to listen intently, but our minds are somewhere. This makes listening more complicated and represents a huge barrier in the workplace; to some people it may become a habit. The quality of our listening changes from time to time and from situation to situation.

Also the context of each communication will affect how important each barrier is, and some of the barriers that reduce our listening effectiveness are under our control. Since effective communication occurs only when the intended meaning is fully received and understood by the listener, it requires word knowledge, proper grammar, and effort. Understanding a message requires a skilled listener; an unskilled listener is often the reason for ineffective communication. Good immunization skills are at the base of any advancement in the workplace.

Finding Nemo: A Response to Trailer essay

Finding Memo is the third feature-length computer animated motion picture made in collaboration between Disney ND Paxar. Its previous successful brother was Toy Story and Monsters, Inc. The success of previous movie Toy Story and Monsters, Inc. Itself has set the quality bar so high that the coming Of Finding Memo is in the curiosity Of the audiences about its quality already. The intended audience of Finding Memo is major children. The rest could be people who love animated motion picture or a Disney fan.

In other word, I might say the movie is suitable and intentionally made to become an entertainment for “Children of all ages”. The audiences are also eager for Finding Memo because of the high quality of Disney’s product. In the trailer, the makers also know about this and mention about the other brother of Finding Memo to catch more attention of audiences. At the beginning, the trailer shows the whimsical tense situation of two fish, one is a clownish and the other is a blue tang fish, who both are aground at some harbor with a pelican chasing after and trying to offer some helps.

The tense audio with small resonant volume has great impact on this scene to create the dangerous atmosphere for two fish. Disney’s films have known for its meaningful but also the humorous wit scenes. In this first scene, he funny element is one again expressed with the unexpected but amusing line of the pelican: ” hoping into my mouth if you want to live” and following with the sarcastic agreement of a herd of albatross. Just for the very first scene with the significant amusing feature usually seen in Disney movies, the makers intentionally put this audiences’ favor to act as the leverage to catch immediately love.

After the tense music and sudden amusing, the trailer movie returns to gentle smooth melody of “Beyond the sea” – movie theme song, performed by Robbie Williams. Slowly emerging from the scene s the magnificent visual of serene under sea life with colorful vibrant coral, variety of many different kinds of fish. The successfully outstanding visual describing a lively life under sea in elegantly detailed would positively catch the exciting from the intend audience. It is completely breathtaking in comparison with two other previous movies.

In previous film, the technique in describing the visual scenes and characters was great, but with this impressive complicated visual imagination, Finding Memo has overcome the expectation of its audiences for an animated movie. With this visual impact, TTS intended audiences would love to go to the theater and watch it from the big screen. Moreover, “Beyond the sea” is an excellent choice to improve the effect of visual image. The song with slow tempo creates the tranquil rate of life under the sea. After that, the trailer reveals two clownish -? a father and a son.

A father seems to over protect his little son. The trailer then gives the statistic number through a narrative voice ” 71% of the earth’s surface is water” to state the difficult to find a fish in the sea. The line of the father fish ” Has anybody seen my son” and “I goat find my son Memo” giving the audiences a clue about the fish the narrative voice mentioned is Memo and the film is about the adventure of Memo’s dad to find him. Along with Memo’s dad, there is a regal blue fish, who appears with him throughout the whole trailer and seems to be his company helping him the whole journal.

The trailer reaches to its dramatic peak when a great white shark suddenly appears and screams out angrily “We’re looking for Memo”. The theme song turns off abruptly and the volume of the shark’s voice increases. It makes the trailer more serious and intense. It seems like to find his some, the devoted ether could ask and do any thing even if it is a white shark. This scene provoke more curiosity from the audiences, even Scary feeling for its kiddies fan but also makes the movie more worthy to wait.

The music then changes to more dynamic high tempo with series of Memo’s father and his company scene during a long adventurous journal. The music with high tempo, raise an energetic feeling but at the same time the audience could feel the rush and the determination of Memo’s father to find his lovely son. Beside the dedicated father, his company – a regal blue tang is also a well-developed character. This company ludicrous crazy through the trailer seems to be ludicrous crazily useless but also sincerely want to help Memo’s dad.

With just a glimpse of scene in the trailer, this fish still raise some curiosity for the audiences that partly making them want to see the full movie. The next several of scenes, there are the imagines of a herd of turtles, fish, jelly, silver moon fish and a great white shark. Those short previews of company he met through the journal one again claimed the expecting adventure in full movie. Meanwhile, the narrative voice still keep revealing the plot ” to find Memo… Old take a miracle… Getting him back is a whole other story… The narrative voice along the action scenes functions like a backbone of the trailer, which gradually reveals the plot and excite the curiosity of its audiences. Through the serial of scenes about the risky journal of Memo’s dad, the reveal about the other main plot flow, which is taking Memo back, is a brilliant way to draw the curiosity of intended audiences. For the end of the trailer, the music then changes to harmonious up-lifting orchestra’s sound. With the change to more passionate cinematic sound, there are several inspired scenes of Memo’s dad touching line like: “Memo, don’t give up”, ” I’m coming Memo”.

Purnell Model For Cultural Competence essay

Eventually, over the next few years the organizing framework was expanded into a Model and holographic and complexity and theory. Holographic theory simply means that it is not confined to one discipline but rather has applicability across health-related disciplines. In complexity theory there is usually an accompanying organizing framework to simplify it. Complexity theory, similar to chaos theory, is characterized by large numbers of similar but independent domains, continuous change in the phenomena of interest leading to adaptation to the environment to ensure sun. Vial, and self- organization over time. The system never reaches equilibrium because societal events necessitate change in beliefs and values, such is the case with culture. The model has been used in practice as a guide for assessment; in education as a guide to incorporate culture into baccalaureate, masters, and doctoral programs; in research; and in administration. The Model has also been used by nursing, physical therapy, medicine, notice science, and occupational therapy and has been translated into Arabic, Flemish, Italian, Korean,

Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, and Turkish testifying to its use on a worldwide basis. Purcell has consulted and made presentations in cultural competence in nursing and health care in over 50 universities and healthcare organizations in Australia, Belize, Belgium, China, Colombia, Costa, Rica, Denmark, England, Hungary, Italy, Korea, Panama, Portugal, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States, testifying to its utility internationally.

Description of the Purcell Model The Purcell Model for Cultural Competence is a circle, with an outlying rim presenting global society, a second rim representing community, a third rim representing family, and an inner rim representing the person. The interior of the circle is divided into 12 pie-shaped wedges depicting cultural domains (constructs) and their associated concepts. The dark center of the circle represents unknown phenomena. Along the bottom of the model is a jagged line representing the nonlinear concept of cultural consciousness.

The 12 cultural domains and their concepts provide the organizing framework. Each main includes concepts that need to be addressed when assessing patients in various settings. Moreover, healthcare provides can use these same concepts to better understand their own cultural beliefs, attitudes, values, practices, and behaviors. An important concept to understand is that no single domain stands alone; they are all interconnected. Macro Aspects of the Purcell Model The macro aspects of this international model include the intermarriage concepts of a global society, community, family, person, and conscious competence.

The theory and model are conceptualized from biology, anthropology, sociology, economics, geography, history, ecology, physiology, psychology, political science, pharmacology, and nutrition as well as theories from communication, family development, and social support. The 12 domains in the Purcell Model are as follows: Overview and Heritage includes concepts related to the country of origin and current residence; the effects of the topography of the country of origin and the current residence on health, economics, politics, reasons for migration, educational status, and occupations.

Communication includes concepts elated to the dominant language, dialects, and the contextual use of the language; Paraguayan variations such as voice volume, tone, intonations, inflections, and willingness to share thoughts and feelings; nonverbal communications such as eye contact, gesturing and facial expressions, use of touch, body language, spatial distancing practices, and acceptable greetings; temporarily in terms of past, present, and future orientation of worldview; clock versus social time; and the degree of formality in use of names.

Family Roles and Organization includes concepts related to the head of the should, gender roles (a product of biology and culture), family goals and priorities, developmental tasks of children and adolescents, roles of the aged and extended family, individual and family social status in the community, and acceptance of alternative lifestyles such as single parenting, nontraditional sexual orientations, childless marriages, and divorce.

Do You Believe The United States essay

One thing that I do not like about the Manchuria is, it is not as personable. There are so many people and you may only see your minister on a giant screen. In our grandparents and parents generations your minister would great you as you were leaving church after the sermon, and at times there would be potlucks afterwards were everyone would attend. In this day and age everyone is off and running to their next obligation, and unfortunately because everyone is so busy religion in some areas is becoming secularists.

In watching the film Judgment Day Intelligent Design on Trial, I understand the townspeople who want another theory taught besides Darning’s Theory of Evolution; but do not believe Creationism or Intelligent Design is the right way to go. Many of us believe in the Bible and it’s teaching, and we believe in science as well; there needs to be a way to come to a rational decision without having another Dover situation. In all honesty, it us up to the parents to let their children know about Creationism.

Going to church and practicing our religious beliefs every Sunday was as common as sitting down with your family every night for dinner. Today’s generation is lucky to have dinner once a week together and may not attend church at all. Americans are so busy with their lives that without being taught religion as our parents and grandparents were, many may doubt what they hear their grandparents speaking and become atheists or convert to a different religion. Popular media shares the stories of Al-Qaeda and Isis with everyone almost nightly.

When the younger generation sees this and they get mad at their parents or schools they run away to join a terrorist group who is following only specific parts of their religious beliefs. Before there was the internet and satellite television, there were still stories like these all over the world, of atheists mad about what is being taught or terrorists mad because the Koran was disrespected but not everyone knew about what was going on. The media has a job to do in reporting news; but sensationalistic every Story is doing more harm to our world than good.

Types of Compensation Strategies: Review and Analysis essay

Is taking the many salary ranges and condensing them down. This is a great way of promoting lateral moves. o People are not staying with companies for the long term, so this will help eliminate the turn over. o Employees will become more diverse and possible find a position with the company they enjoy. o “Compensation programs were designed in the ‘ass and ‘ass for hierarchical organizations. We don’t have hierarchical organizations anymore.

Organizations need to be fluid to move as the markets move. ” (Tyler, 64) Analysis: Broad banding is a great way to narrow down from many salary levels to only 5 to 10. This is a great way to promote lateral moves. C] In this day its really hard to move up in a company so employees are not staying their whole life. o Some drawbacks: C] Many moves need to be put into place to make sure transition is smooth. C] Organization that do not take the time to do this will struggle.

Two types of stock based incentives: o Stock equity and synthetic stock o Stock equity is the form of physical stock o Synthetic stock is phantom stock Stock equity is when company gives the employees an option to buy stock at market price or below. “For most forms of stock equity, the increase in stock value is not recorded as n expense on the company*s income statement. ” (Watson and Blanchard, peg. 36) Synthetic stock is when company wants to put phantom stock up for employees but not give up any of its equity. o This is a form of compensation that is used by a lot of companies. Give employees a sense of ownership. o Good fit employee stock purchase plan. A great way to build team work within “to be effective, a company’s culture must embrace the team concept, team divisions should make sense, and goals should be clear. ” (Bloch, 92) Company must have team culture and draw lines that don’t create dissentions. Must be all in with new plan. o This will be a good fit as long as the company is willing to do the necessary work beforehand. o Article listed in paper shows that the company must make sure they have a team oriented culture. Also, companies that have made the transition to team oriented compensation have become more successful in their transparency. Recommendation #1: o Start a plan to identify what type of culture that company currently has and what type of culture it will want in the future, this will help With the decision of what type of compensation. Recommendation #2 The second recommendation is to implement a stock option plan. This will be a great way to instill a sense of ownership and belonging for the employees of the company. According to Watson and Blanchard, employee stock option or stock equity is not recorded on the company’s income sheet. I think most employees would love to be able add this to their portfolio. Recommendation #3 o The final recommendation is to put into place a denominated compensation package. The is a great option with a manufacturing o According to an article done by Gerhard, Inform, and Olsen titled Employee Compensation: Theory, practice, ND Evidence, they point out that “In compensating employees, an organization does not have to choose one program over another.


These include white vines like: Chardonnay, Reselling Pinot Grip, and Sauvignon Blank. Red wines like Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Shirrs. Since we are in the Northwest, though, we specialize in Pinot Noir, with our kinds varying. 3. What different ways do you grow your grapes? We focus on Pinot Noir and Pinot Grip grapes which are typically the way of growing our own varies depending on the weather which fluctuates a lot in the North West as you know. We do the typical things of putting our vines on a slope to drain the water, but also make sure to place them in an east to west slope for maximum sunshine. . How do you track your wine? Well we were hoping your database would help us with that. We have specific rooms for each wine, with temperatures set for the different kinds of wine. This provides the best wine for our customer, but we want a more efficient way of retrieving it. 5. What do you want this database to do? We want customers to be able to see what we have, understand what it is, place an order, and then make it simple for us to fetch it for them. 6. Where are the grapes grown? Our personal grapes are from vineyards in the Pacific Northwest, specifically the Hamlin Valley area.

We cannot say the same for all of those we import cause that varies, but they include France, Spain, Italy and from several different vineyards in each country. 7. Do import your grapes? Our own wine is locally grown, but the imported wine has grapes from many different places. Often times the grapes are from the same region of the wine producer, but not always. 8. What is your process from start to finish when making wine? We have our land set, along with our grapes already growing. This process was previously described.

Our picking process includes hand pickers for the best care of our grapes. Our grapes our not picked until they are at about the name sugar level as our own standard set for more uniformity in the wine. 9. How do you want the wine classified? (Color, Type, Grapes, Taste, etc. ) We want to put the customer’s experience first. We want them to easily navigate the various categories and then narrow it down to more specific wines. Generally speaking this may go: color, type of wine, description of taste, and so forth. 10. How do you want to Setup the relation TA able? Red Wine, price, etc. ) That is your job, I do not know what that is. 1 1 . Should there be a categorization for Estate wine? Perhaps that would be necessary for our customers or maybe it would be useful to just make it a description as it will matter for very few of our customers. 12. What kind of transactions is the database going to do? Essentially we just want our users to request from our inventory. Through this process they will also end up learning more about what they are purchasing. This will let our employees see what is in the inventory and update it as more arrives. 3. What is your specific target group (younger people, older, experienced drinkers, beginning drinkers etc.? ) Our customers vary. We see quite a bit of middle aged, fairly experience, but not experts in wine. We want this as our argue group, but also an experience which our employees do not have trouble navigating. Our employees are also middle aged, but because oftener job they are required to have expertise in wine. 14. Is this for personal use, or enterprise (Personal? ) I would say personal use because we are only one location, for now. 15.

Is this a multi-purpose database? Yes, the database will be used to track our user, types of wine, frequent users, and past purchases. 16. What vine growing variations do you use? Our wine growing various will vary, but some methods or processes we use are: Mediterranean climates, grapevine cuttings. 7. How large do you expect the database to be? Want the database to be large enough to fit all of my requirements and to be flexible for adjustments. 18. Will this database be used by multiple people at the same time? This database will be used by a few people at a time.

There will be an admit account for my employees to use and a login for customer use. 19. How many bottles do you keep in stock? We will have a large variety of different wines available. However, due to changes in stock quantity, we do not have a set number of bottles in stock. 20. DO you buy wine from other retailers? How often do you get more orders of wine? Yes, every wine type has a threshold; once the quantity in stock of that wine type is below the threshold, we order more. 21. How many bottles do you produce by month?

This varies every season; it changes yearly due to weather conditions and overall yield of grapes. 22. What is the threshold when you want to be notified of wine? It depends on the amount we have in stock and the demand for each different wine. Some wines will go faster than others, so we’ll need to have a higher quantity in stock Of that wine. 23. What temp should the wine be served at? Most Red wines should be between 62-68 degrees for optimal serving temperature, and white wines between 49-55 degrees. 24. What food would be a good pair to this wine?

Champagne is perfect with anything salty, Sauvignon Blank goes with tart dressings and sauces, and Chardonnay for fatty fish or fish in a rich sauce, Ross Champagne is great with dinner. 25. How long can I keep the wine open? Once a bottle of wine is opened, the oxygen in the air starts a process that initially softens the flavors and opens up the aromas Of the wine. 26. How often do you want this database to be backed up? We want to back p our database every night for us to update our wine purchase, stock. 27. Do you need more than 2 accounts (User and Admit)?

We need an Account for the user and admit for our database 28. Do wines need to be decanted? We want to decant wine for 5 minutes to about 2 hours. The action of pouring a wine from a bottle into a decanter does most of the work of decanting wine instantly. 29. Do you need to know the profit margin per bottle? This is not something that is necessary for our database, this will be tracked through others means if at all. 30. How many different kinds of wine are you going to carry? W?re going to carry a variety of wines of different types, however we do not have a definitive amount We will carry. 1. What do you want the customer’s to see about the wine? We’ll show them all of the important need to know aspects of wine, such as: cost, year, quantity, Estate bottle (yes/no), Location (where grape is from), color (II red, white etc), Grape types 32. Do you want a description of each wine? Yes, I want a brief summary of all the attributes the wine has. 33. When is the best time to drink the wine? Most wine bottles can be opened shortly after purchasing. However, pending on quality and type, such as reds, it can be better to wait and let it age. 4 What temperature does the wine need to be stored at? Roughly 55 degrees F is said to be most appropriate. Anything to hot and it can age the wine too quickly and anything to cold could dry out the cork and allow air to seep in, which could ruin the wine. (Try to shoot for around 55 degrees, a few to high/low won’t hurt, just don’t let temperature swing- sudden high/low) 35. Do wines improve with age? Which kinds? Why not? Wine improvement with age depends on wine color, if ifs red or white, and the quality of the wine itself. Most Reds will improve with age, however, it depends on the quality.

High end (more expensive) wine has more potential to become better with age. Most white wines are ready to drink once they’re sold. 36. What is the alcohol content? Proof? The percentage/proof will vary by bottle and will be listed in the description. 37. Do you give samples? How much? Until will get the business and database up and running, we’re unable to give samples as of now. 38. Is there an open house? There will most likely be an open house after the business and database is up and running. 39. Do you ship the wine? Where? Sadly, no we do not. Our wine is purchased in store and picked up from in store.

However, if a customer knows of a specific bottle and quantity they would like, it is possible for them to call in and reserve it for pickup. 40. Do you print out receipt with full order numbers? Would like to have all purchases and prices organized on each receipt. 41. Do you want to keep track of who buys what? Yes, once someone logs in as a guest, their information is stored and organized for tracking purposes. 42. Is there a discount for large purchase orders? This depends on order size and our relationship with the client. Long term ND large order clients will have a higher opportunity to receive such discounts.

Expert Analysis Innovative Data Solutions has determined that this company needs a method for customers to order their desired selection of wine (based on price, color and type) and for employees to physically locate it, efficiently. A proposed solution to this problem would be to create a database that allows the flexibility to track customers, track wine in stock, and create a user friendly interface. If the user opts-in to our tracking system, our database will track and store user information (bottles purchased, amount spent, frequency of sits, etc. . After the user has opted in / out, our logical flow process will help them select the type of wine want. Then the database will update the inventory and notify the proper authorities for any change to the data, such as the purchasing of wine. The threshold will be user defined and will enable the system to communicate with the user if the supply of a particular wine is getting low. Essentially, a double facing interface should be created. One view will walk a customer through, asking probing questions, to determine their needs.

The other view will be for employees, which will show inventory mounts, where the wine is stored, and even the descriptive attributes in case the employee is not an expert in that specific type of wine. The end goal is to produce a database that is user friendly to both the customer and employees. Such a database will create an efficiently systematic way of providing all customers access to any type of wine to fit their taste, and provide knowledge about it along the way. Your expert analysis was performed by: Innovative Data Solutions Team Letter of Intent Mr.. Phil Anderson 3251 Smith Road Tuscaloosa, AL 35404 Dear Mr..

Anderson, Thank you for choosing Innovative Data Solutions for your database needs and for giving us the opportunity to be part of your wine community. The Agreement: As discussed in our interview on 8th October, 2014, we will design the database so that it can make transactions for the purpose of ordering bottles of wine for the user. The database will have a multi-user (Admit and Guest) function so that you can control your inventory needs, among other things, while providing a useful search tool that will allow users to find the wine they want using wine based attributes.

Take The Lead Review essay

Delaine volunteers to host the detention when none of the teachers want to be there stuck watching the students. Actor Antonio Bankers stars as Delaine and Academy Award nominated actress Alfred Woodard stars as Principal Augustine James. Also starring as some of the students are Dante Basso as Ramose, who is most famous for playing Ruffs from the movie Hook and Jean Dean as Sash, most known for her role in Step Up. The movie is excellent in that there is a fusion of ballroom dancing that Delaine teaches and hip-hop dancing that the dents already know. A key element to that are the music producers apart of the film.

Aaron “Zigzag” Caiman, a well-known music producer for films and Hip-Hop producer Swiss Beat were asked personally by director Liz Friendlier to do the music. An example of this fusion is that they mixed two songs together “I Like That (Stop)” by Jaw Mill and “You Can’t Take That Away From Me” by June Christy, and created the song “l Like That You Can’t Take That Away From Me”. The song has the feel of both Ballroom and Hip-Hop styles of music. The single that was released to coincide with the film was Take the Lead (Want Ride)” by Bone Thugs-n-Harmony and Wising & Handel featuring Batman Scoop and Melissa JimNZ.

The music is a major part of the movie. The script and dialogue had nothing too cheesy or corny, which is usually found in movies about high school students. The film is directed by Liz Friendlier and her first. She mostly does music videos for different artists. Even though the cast is mostly of unknown actors, each actor brings something special the characters that they are depicting. Each of the detention students have their own back stories that intertwine within the vie.

There are plenty of funny parts to keep you laughing, as well as drama and character conflicts to keep everything interesting. “Rock: Doctor’s note. I can’t dance, I have a heart condition. Delaine: Interesting man, your doctor. Not many doctors write notes on three-hole paper”. That was the conversation between Delaine and another character Rock, after finding out he would have to dance in detention. It is one of Bandeau’s best performances to date. The most known scene that people know is “The Tango Scene”. It takes place in the basement of the school before the flooding happened.

It is where Delaine dances with his student Morgan, from his own dance studio, to get the detention students to take more of an interest in learning Ballroom dancing, after Cattily, another one of his dance studio students, tells him when Morgan dances “She’s like sex on hardwood”. After that the dance the students are more willing to learn the moves. Mostly the boys because they find out that the girls will have to follow their lead in most of the dances. One thing do not like is that the end left me with some things unanswered because you do not find out who actually wins the ballroom intention. Hind that this movie is one of the most under rated because it did not get the proper recognition that it deserves. Back when I saw the movie in the theater paid around 7 dollars, now you can buy the DVD from any store that sells DVD’s or with much searching you can watch it on Youth for free. I recommend this film for people who like musical drama films. Warning to parents, some material is not suitable for children under the age Of 13. I give this film a five Star rating. It is Rated PEG-13 with a time Of 118 minutes.

Year of birth missing essay

It is easy to recognize that the miseries and sufferings faced by Napalm’s irritations have natural conformity with the experiences Of people all over the world, living in an alien land dominated by a colonized society. Their experience is different from the untold sufferings and thwarted desires imposed by a powerful Fate or Providence which one finds in Hardy s novels. Rather, Napalm’s works show the natural process of a man’s life, which is the fusion of both happiness and sorrow, rough and sublime.

Literary critic Manning Ender Sings has drawn attention to the fact that None of the [Novelist’s] figures are allowed authenticity or a place in the landscape he inhabits. Indeed, Napalm sees a necessarily fleeting and absurd wish in them to cross barriers erected by the limitations of colonized culture that in the end can only lead to a falsity of purpose, supplemented or aggravated by a consciousness of unimportance. (236) The main element of Napalm’s work is the colonial society of the West Indies built on slavery and exploitation and the crudest of materialism with no political or cultural identity.

This particular theme extends from G. Airmails at Event Grove to Nonhuman Bias at Greengage and is even transposed to South London where Mr.. Stone holds up the image so that it stands for the mono plight of the entire human state – loneliness and helplessness set against a sterile world. Napalm’s world is the world of the helpless nomadic migrants making an escape route from Africa or India to the West Indies, then to England and back again. One observes that even after three hundred long years, there is no society and no system of values in which these characters can take root.

It is against such an indistinct and dissolving background that they try to seize upon something to give them permanence so as to arrest the flux in their lives. Mr.. Basis’s desire for a house, Ganges Armchair’s uncompromising sire for success through the goals of education and religion, Ralph Sing’s writing of his memoir in order to put his life in order, Mr.. Stone’s scheme for the aged, Willie Chanson’s shuttling from one country to another and his sexual exploits with various women, are nothing but the attempts to escape the inevitable.

So, the disappointment, frustration and disillusionment that become inevitable for Ganges Airmails in Mystic Masseur, Mr.. Nonhuman Bias in House for Mr.. Bias, Mr.. Stone in Mr.. Stone and the Knights Companion, Ralph Sings in Mimic Men and Willie Somerset Chandler in Half a Life to name a striking few, are recorded by the author in a detached and analytical manner making him a powerful exponent of the Third World reality. Writing about his world, Napalm once remarked, “l begin with myself, this man, this time; I begin from all that and try to investigate it. Ray to understand it. I try to arrive at some degree of self-knowledge and it is the kind of knowledge that cannot deny any aspect of the truth”(7). Autobiography, thus, provides the raw material for all of Napalm’s novels. At the same time, Napalm also acts as a sensitive ironies. He distances reality room facts and character from action and presents his characters as individuals. Thus Ganges, Bias and Ralph Sings are not as much revealed through their actions but are projected through the action of an unveiling irony, which implies both detachment and sympathy.

In Napalm’s fiction, individuals are presented as prisoners of their own egoism. His protagonists are all intensely self-centered and self-enclosed individuals who resist the reciprocity of other human beings and are therefore inclined to be distrustful and even paranoid. This chapter attempts to analyses the minds of a handful of Napalm’s harassers who bear a close resemblance to their creator. They also lay bare his anger and frustration against the Third World societies and simultaneously share his hopes and aspirations for the unfortunate people who live an uprooted, meaningless life in them.

Only in Napalm’s fiction, can one easily encounter people like Ganges, Ralph Sings, and Willie Chandler who live discontented half-lives in their homelands and flee in search of newer pastures at the first opportunity. The background of his novels are the West Indian colonies, though in Mr.. Stone and the Knights Companion, Napalm shifts his locale to England and also exposes the myth about England being the land Of milk and honey. Like the author, all his characters run away to the metropolitan centre, only to experience greater discontentment.

Napalm focuses on the lives of particular individuals in Miguel Street which incidentally gives way to a broader focus on the East Indian Community, as a whole, in his first published novel Mystic Masseur. Distinguished by its alienation from the larger society, the community of Mystic Masseur, shows the socio-cultural openness to other cultural influences, which is typical of the African communities in the West Indies. The novel takes place entirely within an East Indian community in transition from feudalism to capitalism.

The text examines Ganges Armchair’s progress to prominence from masseur to mystic and to the position of an MOB (Member of the British Empire), one of the highest honors a colonial subject could hope to achieve. Mystic Masseur is a novel written primarily to illustrate a thesis with the characters chosen to support a comic but intellectual framework. It is an account of a typical aspirant to power and prestige, finally gravitating to politics as the supreme possibility. Napalm emphasizes Gannet’s assertiveness of character and his alertness to opportunity, indicative of a greater sensitivity to his environment.

Ganges dominates easily in an environment that is mostly lethargic and easy-going. He is the prototype of Napalm’s instinctively successful men, who know when to move on. Napalm has no personal political commitment as a traveling writer but he has a first-hand experience of the nature of political twists and turns in the Third World countries. The knowledge offers him a unique opportunity to model the characters of this novel after such aspirations in politics. The kook’s charm also lies in its autobiographical elements in that its lead character Ganges echoes Napalm himself as a struggling writer dreaming of writing books.

Mystic Masseur is set in Port of Spain in the rural area of Trinidad where the Indians lived and worked. It is a comic study of life in Trinidad in the face of the postcolonial rise of politics that smacks of self-deception and centers on the meteoric rise and metamorphosis of Ganges, the protagonist. Pundit Ganges Airmails of Event Grove starts off as a teacher, tries to become a masseur in the family tradition and goes on to become a well-known psychic ND faith-healer. The Hindu community in Trinidad considers him their leader and elects him to the Legislative Council.

He is finally honored with an MOB and travels to London as a colonial Statesman changing his name to G. Ramsey Mir. The author takes delight in depicting the character of Ganges and does it with gusto and vividness. The advent of the western institution of democracy with its noble humanism and liberalism also creates the required political hero, but in the context of the Trinidad world, what transfigures out of it is only an anti-hero. Underlying the surface comedy lies a deep sense of rut which Napalm and several thinkers like him may have felt, as they viewed the tragedy being enacted in their own home-lands.

At the Government Training College for teachers in Port of Spain, Ganges ” was taught many important subjects and from time to time he practiced on little classes from schools nearby. He learned to write on a black board (23). Within a few words, Napalm quietly ridicules three topics – the courses taken in the colleges of education, black board training and the improbability that practicing on small select classes will groom teachers. A few pages later, e once again mocks the reality of local education through Gannet’s words: “If you leave the boys alone, they leave you alone” (25).

Napalm’s Ganges is an opportunist, whose central motif in life is to bring success to himself by defrauding others, though not in any sinister way. His ultimate prosperity as a politician is humorously grounded in his early failures as a masseur and mystic. As a writer, his works instead of being informative or inspiring appear to be a clever means of exploiting a credulous populace. The boy-narrator in the novel, is also the biographer of Ganges and writes bout him with timely comments and juxtaposition and humorous deflation.

Napalm uses him to reveal, very cleverly, the absurdity of a society that has pronounced Ganges a hero. The narrator is an intelligent observer. If he frequently appears to be going along with the accepted views of Ganges, it is not because he is taken in, but because he is delighted and intrigued by the fraudulent hero. As such, he explores the whole situation with his tongue- inched manner and does not hesitate to convey the full flavor of his delight. It is the pose of Napalm himself who invariably relishes the contradictions he IS exposing.

Strangely enough, all the qualities of Ganges, the hero, are not really virtuous or heroic but they are the most indispensable and strictly suitable for any individual to succeed in the Caribbean society during the transitional period between the disappearance of the older values and the appearance of a new cultural loyalty and standard. One is able to observe that there is obviously a physical and intellectual poverty in the midst of plenty. At the same time Ganges is not presented as a mere trickster hero, clever enough and unscrupulous enough to turn his back on all moral standards.

He s shown as perfectly attuned to his times. He is a hero because the contradictions of his society are expressed and heightened in himself. He wins the readers’ sympathy because he is not an outright fake and there are some genuine human qualities in him that deserve commendation. Generosity is evident in his treatment of Ramona, his father-in-law. In spite of the quarrels between them, Ganges treats Ramona hospitably, which warms Allele’s heart towards him: Ella had tears in her eyes. ‘Man, is the second time in my life you make me feel proud of you’.

She leaned on him. He didn’t push her away. The first time was with the boy and the cloud. NOW is with pa’. (202 -3) In his autobiography entitled Years of Guilt, Ganges writes that his marriage to Ella was preordained, a work of fate which he knew but never questioned: “I had always, considered it as settled that was going to marry his daughter. I never questioned it. It all seemed preordained” (46). However, the boy narrators account of what actually happened shows that Ganges accepts the proposal only after Ramona has revealed the exact worth of his property.

Ganges obviously achieves success by exercising his wit and intelligence. He thus tricks Ramona who deliberately tries to avoid giving a dowry and manages to extract a sizeable dowry from him. A typical colonized Trinidad Indian, Ramona exhibits a tendency similar to the people who are victims of “Cultural Schizophrenia” (Cognitional 130)-the tendency to legitimate their actions in either cultural frame to suit the demands of the situation. This is how Ramona attempts to avoid the traditional Kedgeree-eating ceremony during Gannet’s marriage in order to escape from paying the dowry.

He tells Ganges: ‘Is the Shame, Sahib’s, that eating me up. You know how with these Hindu deeding everybody does know how much the boy get from the girl father… Everybody go see what I give you, and they go say, “Look, Ramona marrying off his second and best daughter to a boy with a college education, and this is all the man giving”. Is that what eating me up, Sahib’s. I know that for you, educated and reading books night and day, it wouldn’t mean much, but for me, Sahib’s, what about my character and sense values? ‘. (51) Ramona thus cunningly denounces the dowry system using modern education as a ploy.

The same Ramona, a little earlier, had denounced education as an evil too: “Education, Sahib’s, is one hell of a thing. When you is a poor illiterate man like me, all sort of people does want to take advantage on you” (50). However, one knows that it is only one of his ploys to avoid paying dowry to Ganges. He foolishly hopes that Ganges being educated and modern in his views might forgo dowry and free him from paying the amount. But Ganges dashes his hopes by turning the tables on him. As Gannet’s fortune rises, he is forced to make compromises that lead him to stray from the path of virtue.

Both circumstances as well as pressures from the people around him, whose fortunes are tied to his own, egg him on. Thus he is forced to commercialism his profession. He first opens a restaurant, then takes over the taxi business from Ramona. Berry prospers as he makes a considerable profit through the sale of land when the land values rise in Event Grove due to Ganges, the pundit’s, popularity. Up to this point, however, Ganges has made no major compromise with his basic integrity. But his fall happens when he becomes the president Of the Hindu Association by defeating Nary, his opponent, in a carefully planned maneuver.

From this point onwards Maniple’s satire assumes such sharpness that by the ND of the novel all sympathy towards Ganges is more or less withdrawn though Napalm allows his pet hero to win it back in the end. After becoming the President of the Hindu Association, Ganges contests the general elections of the island and fights, as the narrator ironically says, “the cleanest election campaign in Trinidad history/’ (199). Since Ganges understands people of his land inside out, Ender Sings his opponent, even with the glamour of his Oxford degree, stands no chance against him.

As an M. L. C, Ganges frequently stages walkouts and becomes the most popular man in Trinidad but has not yet come into the notice of the colonial office, which in its reports dismisses him as “an irresponsible agitator (214). However, when Ganges, unable to quell the strike in the sugar estates, pins the blame on the communists, his own party, and also declares his determination to fight against them, the colonial office begins to take notice of him. Its reports now describe Ganges as ” an important political leader’ (219).

Soon, he is made the representative of the British colonial rule and this finally fetches him the title of M. B. E. When SUccess comes to Ganges, he begins to see that advances can in fact be made and accomplished only with correctly thought-out and energetically executed plans. From this point onwards, his success grows and is manifested symbolically by the acquisition of western goods and products. His house expands, he moves into business ventures related to his success as a pundit and finally, the triumph of western civilization manifests itself in the installation of a refrigerator in his house full of Coca-Cola.

His path to Westernizes culminates in the acquisition of the more striking name of G. Armadas Mir. Gannet’s character and attitude to life change drastically from the primitive West Indian to the sophisticated Western. By this time, Ganges has traveled far on the road to ‘whiteness’, and his final rejection of his society comes with the change of his name to G. Ramsey Mir. Gannet’s transformation into a capitalist and mimic man is now complete. Another Megalomania. Equally interesting It made is aspect obvious of Gannet’s he character hastens to meet Mr.. Stewart.

The enthusiastic English man claiming to be a Kashmir Hindu, dresses like an Indian mendicant and is lost in his rosy vision Of Hinduism. It is he who transforms Ganges into a mystic. ” You must write your thoughts”, Mr.. Stewart said. “They may help other people. You know, I felt all along that was going to meet someone like you” (41 Ganges is overwhelmed and reciprocates to their relationship by dedicating his autobiography to Stewart of Chester/Friend and Counselor/of many years” (42). “Lord The absurdity of the whole issue can be appreciated when one remembers that Ganges had met the English man only twice before.

The novelist exposes Gannet’s literary pretensions too. He presents Ganges as sick with self-love and given to tall talking. For example, his conversation with his wife, “How much book I buy last week, Ella? “, asked Ganges, to which his wife replied: “Only three, man. But they was big books, big big books. Six to seven inches altogether” (15). Writing is the only means Ganges has for imposing some sense into his chaotic world, though at that point in his development he does not grasp the implications.

The acts of writing and reading open up a new world of thought for Ganges and increase his understanding of his own world. It is because he had to know about the past before he can investigate and explore the present that he develops an interest in practical psychology and in Hindu philosophy. He understands that an understanding of English Empiricism and Hindu toothpaste becomes indispensable for his future undertakings. The mythology of the East is combined with that of the West as Ganges attempts to save the life of Hector, an African boy who believes that a cloud is following him.

Ganges converts his bedroom into a study in which he places a picture of goddess Alkalis in a prominent place. Below the Goddess, he places a candle and burns camphor and incense. Thus he allows the tenets of Hinduism and Christianity to merge. The combined strengths of both worlds are used to exorcise the demon from Hector, so that the child can become psychologically liberated. Thus, in one bold stroke, Ganges makes a final break with his feudal past by liberating a young boy from the crippling superstitions Of the past.

After this he promptly acquires his new name G. R. Mir, Sees. , a symbol of his new identity. Mystic Masseur presents the picture of the West Indian society, its crises and challenges in a systematic way. As M. K. Nazi points out, “Napalm’s main aim in Mystic Masseur seems to be to exploit the comic absurdity in the lives of the transplanted Indians in the West Indies” (1-2). So he makes his protagonist bring together the symbols and knowledge of the various cultures of Trinidad Hindu, Moslem, and Christian, modern and traditional.

Ganges even uses English, local dialect, Hindi and a smattering of Spanish, according to circumstances. He is the hero of the people, an example of the people especially Traditions of the Indian Diaspora, remaking themselves, in ways that are necessarily crude, brutal and comic. Yet Ganges wins sympathy because he is not an outright fake. There are some gene nine human qualities in him that deserve commendation. For example, his attitude to religion. It can also be traced to Hinduism tolerant stance: He was no bigot. He took as much interest in Christianity and Islam as in Hinduism.

In the Shrine, the old bedroom, he had pictures of Mary and Jesus next to Krishna and Vishnu; a crescent and Star represented iconoclastic Islam. ‘All the same God’, he said. Christians liked him, Muslims liked him, and Hindus willing as ever to risk prayers to new gods, didn’t object. (139) The blend of the East and the West in Ganges makes him ” a sharp character”. In Middle passage, Napalm observes: “Trinidad had always admired the ‘Sharp Character’, who, like the sixteenth century Picaroon of Spanish literature, arrives and triumphs by his wits in a place where it is felt that all eminence is arrived at by crookedness (78).

Accounting Internship Explore It With PursueAsia essay

Accounting is a vast field that covers a wide range of services being offered to clients – preparing and auditing financial statement, consulting with regard to tax and help preparing tax returns, bookkeeping and financial and business advisory services – broadly classified.

As an accountant, you will have many career options to choose from – from being an associate accountant to an in- house accountant to being a part of third party audit form, serve as an independent accountant, be an internal auditor or become a budget analyst et cetera – the list is endless and it only shows how important accounting is to each firm and various avenues that have opened up for the professionals and fresher as well!

With an ever increasing demand of skilled accountants, the global accounting industry has created a lot of employment opportunities and will continue to do so. Accountants in the present times have become the voice of management when it comes to taking strategic decisions. Rather than just being a data collector, accountants have come a long way and are now being called upon to analyses the report and provide their input in order to help management take important decisions, ones which have the ability to impact the business.

Apart from a degree from a reputed college/ university, students can up their quotient by taking up an internship. An internship with a global company will not only add credits to your course, it will also put you ahead of the lot when it comes to acquiring hands-on experience and the chemical know-how necessary to gain an entry to one of the best companies.

It will also provide you with excellent networking opportunities and helping you build a pool of knowledge that comes from the industry and the professionals who have been in the industry and know exactly what it takes to be a successful and a sought after accountant. Enroll now with Prussia to get the global advantage when you sign up for their flagship international internship program and get a kick-start your journey towards a fulfilling career!

Inter state Tensions in Southeast Asia essay

In general, ethnic-cultural divisions were merely n underlying cause of some political disputes, providing the platform for political differences to emerge, resulting in actual tensions. Even so, the Indonesia-Malaysia experience of Confrontations proved that it is difficult to argue the primacy of either as in instances, such as in, Singapore-Malaysia/ Vietnam-Kampuchea divisions, it was the plasticization Of matters along racial lines – impetus of each that led to tensions.

Furthermore, in the case of Indonesia-Malaysia, it was ethnic-cultural commonalities, rather than divisions that led to rivalry and hence tensions. Political differences, which an be explored by security & sovereignty perception and ideological differences, lead to the development of actual tensions without the intervention of ethnic-cultural schisms. When it comes to security, SEA states are usually intransigent as security directly concerns the sovereignty of the country -? visit-;-visit territorial, political influence and power balance in the SEA region.

As such, when a state’s actions jeopardize another’s security and sovereignty, the latter will be forced to react aggressively, leading to actual tangible tensions between states. For example, Malaysia’s decision Of establish the GEM was seen as a palpable threat to Saguaro’s ultrasonically vision of a “Greater Indonesia” peninsula and to Indonesian sense of supremacy. It was also perceived as a threat to Philippines.

These led to Saguaro and Philippines launching military actions – Confrontations and the Corridor Incident, which patently led to actual tensions between Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia. With regard to Indonesia-Malaysia, despite ethnic- cultural commonalities present between the ;o states, Confrontations was still launched, attesting to the irrelevance of ethnic-cultural in certain tensions. In addition, frequent Kampuchea attacks on Vietnamese borders and a unstable POI Pot regime greatly jeopardized Vietnamese national security, leading to the 1 979 Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea.

As illustrated above, security & sovereignty perceptions will result in states adopting aggressive military tactics when their national security & sovereignty are being subverted, leading directly to actual tensions without the intervention of ethnic-cultural divisions, supporting the assessment. Differing immediate political contexts of SEA states pertinent to territorial disputes, independent Of ethnic-cultural schisms, led to xi’s tensions. Leaders in pre-1 967 tend to be more ultra-nationalistic and were anxious over their newly gained sovereignty and their place in the SEA region.

As such, they tend to display their political egoism through proportioning territorial concerns over economic as it underscores a states autonomy and supremacy, greatly accentuating tensions between states when disagreements over territories occur. In a bid to eradicate Philippines’ image of a willing US subordinate, MacDougal fervently pursued the Saba claim to attest to Philippines’ sovereignty. He splayed his political egoism through an adamant stand with regard to the Saba issue over Malaysia, leading to the development of xi’s tensions between Philippines and Malaysia.

In contrast, with Marco’s’ parameterization of economic affiliations with Malaysia to attain economic growth for Philippines, Marco’s jettisoned the pursuit of Saba claim, greatly ameliorating tensions between Philippines and Malaysia. Hence, the above contrasting actions taken by SEA leaders demonstrate how a state’s differing immediate political context with elements of ultra-nationalistic ambitions influenced the foreign oratories of SEA leaders, causing them to be more intransigent with regard to territorial disputes, leading to the development of i/s tensions.

Ideological differences between the communist and non-communist camps due to the influence Of the Cold War dynamics led to xi’s tensions as well. Most SEA States after their independence viewed Communism as a severe threat which can potentially undermine the political influence of existing leaders, leading to most SEA states being wary of communist aggression. In the immediate aftermath of the invasion of Kampuchea by Communist Vietnam, tensions immediately emerged between Vietnam and other SEA states.

SEAN issued a collective diplomatic statement condemning the invasion and lobbied for international support from the UN, SEC, Japan and Australia. Singapore also led the tension with the call for international economic sanctions against Vietnam in 1979. The above clearly reflects how ideological differences due to the OCW dynamics can cause SEA states to become unsettled and anxious over potential threats posed by communism to their state’s political stability, leading to actual retaliatory actions taken, leading to xi’s tensions.

Political differences over prior experiences of subjugation led to historical animosities underlying some xi’s tensions. For the Vietnam-Kampuchea, the asses Name Teen and asses Optimization under King Mini Mange led to Kampuchea perception of Vietnamese as aggressors. This suspicion led to Prince Schnook’s orders for attacks on Vietnamese troops in border areas and later the unstable POI Pot regime which led to Vietnam adopting a militant policy and massive military building up which eventually culminated into the 1 979 Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea.

For Thai-Manner, historical Burmese attacks on Thailand in the 17th Century led to the This’ impression of Burmese as aggressors causing relative inflexibility in resolving bilateral tensions such as the 1997 Moe River’s changed course which escalated into the sealing of borders at Mae Sot and later checkpoints at Mae SAA due to diplomatic crisis over illegal fishing. In contrast, similar fishing dispute between Thai-Malaysia were easily resolved due to relatively good diplomatic relations.

Hence, this reflects how political differences over prior experiences of aggression leading to historical animosities underlying some xi’s tensions, repainting and causing a higher probability of the development of some i/s tensions. Hence, as illustrated above, political differences which can be manifested in the aspects of the perception of security & sovereignty, ideological differences and immediate political contexts, are an important factor to the extent that they can explain both the immediate and long term factors bases for i/s conflicts, independent of ethnic-cultural divisions, supporting the assessment.

However, ethnic-cultural divisions had also contributed the development of some political disputes Ethnic-cultural visions are the primary basis of animosities between certain states, serving as underlying factors for some political xi’s disputes. For example, the ethnic- cultural differences between a predominantly Chinese Singapore and Malay Malaysia led to the political differences of “Malaysian Malaysia” and “Malay Malaysia”, resulting in the bitter 1 965 separation.

This animosity had an pervading overhanging influence in subsequent disputes such as the Pedro Branch, KM railway and the Water issue which Malaysian leaders often exploited the asymmetrical dependence of Singapore on Malaysia’s water by heartening to cut off the water supply to coerce Singapore into passing favorable policies to Malaysia. Such exploitation generated much animosity, making both states more prone towards its tensions. Divide between a cue Diurnally “civilized” Vietnamese and “barbarous” Kampuchea led to the formers sense of superiority over the latter and the perceived right to intervene.

This sense of superiority was manifested in the 1 sass Name Teen and 1 8305 Optimization under King Mini Mange, and coupled with the unstable POI Pot regime, the confluence of the above arguably culminated to he 1979 Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea, creating palpable xi’s tensions. As such, we can see that ethnic-cultural schisms had provided the platform for political differences to rise, contributing to the development of xi’s tensions, albeit an underlying indirect contribution.

Ethnic-cultural divisions caused by the colonial carving petitioners also triggered xi’s tensions. Ethnic- cultural schisms are caused by colonial delineation of territories, dividing natural ethnic communities into unnatural political entities. Persistent primordial links led to cross-border support for separatist movements, eating to i/s dissent. For example, the Malaysia-Thai Patina Muslims. The Anglo-Siamese Treat ceded 4 northern Malay states to Malay, with Siamese control over Patina, dividing an Islamic community.

Skeletal support for the Patina, even in the 1998 Falling Leaves Campaign has resulted in intermittent tension between the two states. Also the Malaysia-Philippines Mindanao Muslims. US conquest and Spanish ceded Sulk and Mindanao to US, with the rest of the Philippines, dividing a homogeneous Islamic community. Saba support for Moors in 1 sass had led to much xi’s dissent between the two states. In these cases, it’s debatable that the cause of tensions is indeed the divisions.

However, it is more plausible to conclude these as cross-border disputes leading to internal social upheavals in Thailand and Philippines. In general, ethnic-cultural schisms are an underlying cause of some tensions due to the more deep-seated and enduring nature of ethnic-cultural influence, triggering tensions but not actualization conflicts. Often, political differences are expressions of ethnic-cultural schisms, which can be manifested in a multitude of forms – ideological, territorial disputes, leading o tangible actual i/s conflicts.

However, more importantly, political difference pertinent to sovereignty & security have the highest propensity in escalating into actual its conflicts due to intransigent stance adopted by states. In conclusion, the deep-seated nature of ethnic-cultural divisions are the underlying factors which triggered tensions, indirectly contributing to certain political tensions. On the contrary, political differences present themselves as both immediate and long term factors, directly actualization i/s tensions, supporting the assessment above.

Nevertheless, we must adopt a multi- acted approach and consider the confluence of the numerous variables above as it is not just one factor that caused its tensions, but rather, the interaction of the numerous variables, leading to xi’s tensions between SEA states after independence. Higher level analysis: The situation does not necessarily have a distinct separation between ethnic- cultural and political divisions: For example: The political ambitions of the PAP in the 1 964 federal elections met with much resistance from the Alliance.