Module essay

He was unequivocally opposed to the capitalist system, Robert Owen (6. 03): Robert Owen was a Welsh social reformer and one Of the menders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Gandhi (6. 06, 8. 05): was the preeminent leader of Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. , Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Protesting for more than 20 years for Indian’s independence from British rule. Finally, after World War II, Britain agreed to grant this independence.

However, the Muslim league in India wanted the nation to be partitioned along religious lines into Kenya (6. 06): Com Kenya led the Kenya African Union (KAKI), which fought for independence. Com Kenya was the leader of Kenya from independence in 1 963 to his death in 1978, serving first as Prime Minister and then as President. He is considered the founding father of the Kenya nation Nelson Mandela (6. 06): Nelson Relational Mandela was a South African anti- apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.

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Five’ De Clerk (6. 06): is a South African politician who served as the country’s State President from September 1989 to May 1994. He was the seventh and lasted of state of South Africa Key Terms and Places Latin American Revolutions (6. 1): wars of independence, the 1 8th- and 19th- century revolutionary wars against European colonial rule that led to the independence of the Latin American states. Any of the other revolutions and rebellions that have taken place in Latin America during and since European colonial rule, in the 20th century Cotton Gin (6. 2): device invented by Eli Whitney to process raw cotton by removing the seeds from the plant’s fibers Agricultural Revolution (6. 02): a period of development in the 1 8th-1 9th centuries in which major advancements and improvements in agricultural practices were developed Industrial Revolution (6. 2): a change in the production of goods characterized by the introduction of machinery and other technological advances that began in Europe in the late 1 8th and 19th centuries Lowell System (6. 02): Utopian Socialism (6. 3): one who supports the idea that society needs to be organized along planned, cooperative lines, but that this can be done without revolution by finding a benevolent ruler or by forming cooperative communities Boxer Rebellion (6. 04): (1900) anti-western rebellion by a group of Chinese nationalists who exposed the exploitation of China by imperialist powers; defeated by European Imperialists Opium War (6. 04): First Opium War: (1838-1842) Britain won and China was forced to accept Opium as payment for it’s resources.

Second Opium War(1 856-1858) China was defeated again and forced to accept Opium as payment again Effects Of the Opium Wars Serious drug problems in China; China had no power; “Society of the Fist of Righteousness” was formed and was violent towards anything that encouraged foreign things (especially Christian missionaries) Social Darwinism (6. 04): the notion that survival of the fittest applies to society such that a “fitter” society naturally lords it over or outcomes less fit” societies; also used to justify racism Imperialism–pros and cons (6. 4, 8. 06) a system under which nations take over other countries, either by conquering them or by gaining control of their political and economic systems Franco-Prussian War (6. 05): or aptly named, the Franco-German War; it was a war between France and young Germany that lasted from July 1 870 until France’s surrender in February 1871 ; it marked the end of France’s military domination and the beginning of Germany’s military domination in Europe; resentment from the Franco-Prussian War led to the First World War Italian Unification (6. ): was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 1 9th century. German Unification (6. 05): Meijer Restoration (6. 06): Japanese leaders realized that modernization is necessary to compete with other countries. By the late 1 sass, Japan had one of the strongest military forces in East Asia. First constitution in Japan was formed in 1889. Emperor remained head of government but the constitution set up a cabinet of ministers and a bicameral legislature. The people still had little power Arab Spring of 2012 (6. ): People were encouraged when a man in Tunisia killed himself by setting himself on fire to protest the corruption that deprived him in 2010 Questions to Consider for Review 6. 01 How did the class system influence the way different groups might have thought of each other? (6. 01): Peninsular: a person of pure European heritage who was born in Europe ? Europeans who had been born in Europe (Spain and Portugal make up the Iberian Peninsula, which is where the word comes from. ) They completely controlled the governments of the colonies. Creole: a person Of pure European heritage who was born in the New World

Europeans who had been born in the colonies and who owned most of the land, but they had no say in the government. They were second-class citizens, but at least they were citizens. Messiest: a person of mixed European and Indian heritage ? People of mixed European and Indian ancestry who had no political rights, and few social or economic rights. Mulatto: a person of mixed European and African heritage ? People of mixed European and African ancestry who had no political rights, and few social or economic rights. Indians ? They had few, if any, rights. Free Africans ?

Some slaves managed to gain their freedom, but once they did, they still had few, if any, rights. Slaves ? These Africans were not considered to be people. They were property. How are the different independence movements in the Caribbean countries related? (6. 01 ) Historically social class and behavior was sometimes laid down in law. For example, permitted mode Of dress in Some times Of places was strictly regulated, with sumptuous dressing only for the high ranks of society and aristocracy; sumptuous laws stipulated the dress and jewelry appropriate for a person’s social rank and station.

For Marxist, class antagonism is rooted in the situation that control over social production necessarily entails control over the class which produces goods?in capitalism this is the exploitation of workers by the bourgeoisie. How did activities in Europe lead to the decentralization of the Americas? (6. 01) Napoleon forcibly deposed Ferdinand VII of Spain in 1808,making his own brother Joseph Bonaparte king of Spain in his place. However, Spanish royal officials in Spanish colonies in the Americas refused to recognize Joseph, or take orders from him.

In the absence of any instructions from Ferdinand (who ad been imprisoned by Napoleon),the Spanish colonies in the Americas were thus left to run their own affairs until the French were forced out of Spain, and Ferdinand restored to the throne, in 1813. By then, having become used to running these colonies themselves, the local colonist population decided that they wanted to continue doing so, free from interference from Spain. This led directly to the wars of liberation in the Spanish Americas, and the subsequent decentralization of most of the region.

Because all the countries they colonized wanted independence and they sought after imperialistic beliefs. How were the Castillo like feudal lords? (6. 01) Acidulous were bosses who controlled a province or territory like feudal lords. A caudally was usually a wealthy landowner who organized and paid for his own private militia. He controlled the upper and middle classes through military strength and force of personality. He controlled the lower classes because they depended on him for work. Caudally usually describes a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power.

The term translates into English as leader or chief, or more pejoratively as warlord, dictator or strongman. Caudally was the term used to refer to the charismatic populist leaders among the people. A feudal lord was in broad terms a noble who held land, a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief. 6. 02 Why was the textile industry important for the start of the Industrial Revolution? (6. 02) thee was an ongoing population increase throughout the 18th century in Britain, due to the Agricultural Revolution.

Population rose from just over 6 million in 1700 to almost 16 and a half million by 1801. This created a huge demand for textiles, as people needed clothes, and for cheap excites, so that everybody could afford them. The piece work cottage industry system was fine in 1700,when demand could be met by the system. By 1800,this was no longer possible, so textiles had to be produced on an industrial scale to keep up with demand, and to be available at an affordable price for the ordinary person. Hence, the textile industry became the first to be industrialized, because it was the first to require mass demand for its products.

What were some of the problems caused by rapid industrialization? (6. 02) Disease accounted for many deaths in industrial cities during the Industrial Revolution. With a chronic lack of hygiene, little knowledge of sanitary care and no knowledge as to what caused diseases (let alone cure them) because the rapid growth of cities brought a lot of people and with that more problem were being crated . For example Pollution created smoke, fouling of rivers, use of dangerous chemicals. Over-crowding in the industrial towns, slums and epidemics of typhoid, cholera etc.

Loss of skilled manual work so that men often became displaced by women and children. How was the process of industrialization in the United States similar to or different from how it occurred in Britain? (6. 2) The industrialization of the United States and the growth of the factory system were directly related to the growth of cities. Arbitration, the movement of people from rural to urban areas, was a major side effect of the Industrial Revolution. Entire cities such as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Buffalo, New York; and Richmond, Virginia, grew out of the factory system-urban growth, however, was largely unplanned.

Arbitration frequently resulted in overcrowding. Many basic amenities we take for granted today were absent. There were no paved streets or sidewalks. There was no street lighting at night. Garbage was thrown out on he streets. Police and fire protection did not exist. Cities were often dangerous places, due to crime and the rapid spread of diseases like cholera. How was Japan’s industrialization tied to colonization? (6. 02) japans’ program of colonial industrialization is unique in the world. Japan was the only colonizer to locate various heavy industry is in its colonies.

By 1 945 the industrial plants in Korea accounted for about a quarter of Japan’s industrial base. Japan’s colonization of Korea help them to create a colonial industry which lead Japan to build a vast network of railroads, ports, and a system of hydro-electric dams and heavy industrial plants around the Yale River in what is now North Korea. Japan’s industrialization was tied to the process of colonization. But in Japan’s case, it sought to industrialized in order to avoid becoming a colony. Yet by way of wars with both China and Russia, Japan became an imperial power in its own right.

This process would have major consequences once it found its interests clashed with those of the United States decades later. What was the artistic response to the Industrial Revolution? (6. 02) . Most used the tools and paints that were now mass- produced at factories but considerably cheaper. Many incorporated the industrial revolution into at least some of their work. Others reevaluated their perspective on reality as they witnessed increasing demands for resources and the colonization of less developed countries. How did the views of Engel’s and Smiles on industrialization differ? 6. 02) Marx and Engel’s wrote the Communist Manifesto where they outlined the aims of a communist state: the end of capita list exploitation of the workers by the middle classes, the end of nationalism – as all workers share a similar culture and nationalism is a capitalist construct and the end of exploitation by the lulling class. Industrialization concentrated labor into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organization of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. How were social reforms impacted by the Industrial Revolution? 6. 02) the first general laws against child labor, the Factory Acts, were passed in England: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. 6. 03 How did the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution contribute to the emergence of new ideologies? (6. 03) If the colonists did not have the enlightenment period then no one would have thought of leaving the British control and try to become Americans How did economists expand upon the ideas of Adam Smith? 6. 03) Thomas Malthusian used Smith’s ideas to argue that poverty could never be eliminated from society because population growth will always exceed an economy’s ability to provide for everyone in “An Essay on the Principle of Population” David Richard argued that wages vary inversely with profits and believed laissez-fairer policies were right in ” Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” Jeremy Beneath believed that in some cases, the government should intervene on behalf of the disadvantaged. Non Stuart Mill thought that governments should work to guarantee that the social and economic rights of all people were protected (in ” Principles of Political Economy”). What were some of the early socialist beliefs, and how were they put into practice? (6. 03) The early socialists were very idealistic. They believed that the new wealth generated by the Industrial Revolution would be put to the best use if it was employed cooperatively. The socialists, unlike the capitalists, favored a more even distribution of income. What are some leading features of communist ideology? 6. 03) theory of socialism that explains how capitalism will be overturned; theory of immigration How are the ideologies of socialism, communism, and capitalism similar and different? (6. 03) Socialism seeks to regulate capitalism and make it more tolerable, Communism explains how capitalism will be overturned, Capitalism divides society between the rich and the poor, Communism asks for a classless society. Socialism relies on government planning and even distribution of income for resources, communism and capitalism rely on the marketplace to distribute resources. 04 Describe the motivations European nations had that led them to establish colonies overseas? (6. 04) *they wanted to find a passage to Asia. *They wanted to own more land. *they wanted to expand Christianity. *They wanted to find animal furs. The three GIs. Gold,Glory,God Why is it useful to view the Age of Imperialism in two waves? (6. 04) imperialism, from the perspective of modern progressivism has been denigrated as inhumane, cruel, and self-aggrandize. Indeed, it often was all of those things, especially in Africa. [ But viewed objectively, it may have been a good thing for the development of the world.

As well as the cruelty and greed that drove some colonial powers, much good was done by the improvement in the economies and technologies of many pre-industrial societies. How was propaganda used to promote the ideas of imperialism? (6. 04) Imperialism is the act of one strong nation taking over another weaker nation and turning it into a colony.. Propaganda was used to encourage the people to go and live in the colony How are the post-colonial experiences of the countries of Algeria, the Congo, and Korea different or similar? (6. 04) Similarly: They have suffered or are still suffering economic hardships and corrupt leaders.

Tensions continue, but not always with violence now. Contrasting: In Algeria, the fighting had mostly ended – in the Congo, rebels have maintained power with violence and coercion. Korea split in half (North Korea and South Korea). 6. 05 What was the state of both Italy and Germany after the Napoleonic Era? (6. 05) Both Italy and Germany remained as political expressions for certain parts of Europe, divided into a number of independent states, each with its own ruler and distinct foreign policy. Politically,both were dominated by Austria. How did Cavort differ from Garibaldi and Amazing? (6. 05)

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