As a result, inevitably, it became such a profound part of everyday life and its impact on ivies of individuals in different parts of the globe is increasing with every day. Usually there are three distinctive features of globalization debated in academia and those are: economic, political and cultural globalization. Therefore it can be observed that globalization process penetrates the most vital disciplines of every society; there is no doubt in that.
However, world and scholars of social sciences are facing the question if increasing globalization is a good thing. There are very mixed views on this matter, as it varies from exaggerated idealizing of globalization to perceiving it as a pure evil. On the other hand, from varies studies on this matter it can be concluded that even if there are dangers and harmful outcomes of living in global world, the weight of benefits is much more valid, because, in words of Philippe Algerian, globalization has potential to do immense good. Starting with defining the term ћglobalizationџ, then concentrating on exploring the most common, established fears posed by anti-globalization movement members and general public, and presenting ways in which global problems are managed by nation-states or Nan-state actors, this essay will try to present often raised issues of conception of globalization and to explain why they are important for our understanding of world politics.
First of all, agreement on exact definition of the term ћglobalization was never achieved and respectively nowadays scholars acknowledge that in their works. It was once commonplace to think of globalization as an economic process (which it surely is), then emerged thought of grain, Philippe, “Open World: the truth about globalization” (Abacus, 2003), p. 14 Dominica Kampala (1207347) viewing it as a political process, and the most recent one is concerning cultural changes.
Jan Art Schools pointed out that “knowledge of globalization is substantially a function of how the concept is defined”3 and as David Held and Anthony argue, the intensity and diversity in scholars of social sciences views on the debate about globalization are enormous. However, there can be distinguished few leading positions in the debate, which varies from insisting on the resistance against global forces to adapting to them.
Moreover, globalization is such a complex phenomenon that until very recently there were only few who tried to measure it and make it certain how immense it is. When something can be measured, the knowledge about it is of a more satisfactory kind as it becomes more comparable. We can measure some things very accurately, especially in developed countries, but what about things such as spread of culture and ideas that are not that easy to measure, at least not in such short period of time?
Of course, some things require more broad and distant look, not only close and narrow perspective. To illustrate this point, one can use figures of Foreign Policy report on measuring globalization which show that, for instance, Malaysia is more globalizes but far less equal than Poland. Philippe Algerian further argues that globalization is all-embracing and omnipresent force, which is yet extremely misunderstood and those two are main reasons why so many people fear it. 6 Moreover, its tempo is increasing in unknown before rates.
The choice of words here is deliberate – unknown, because never before people could share news and information that effortless and fast. Maybe it is awareness that makes difference in its perception, as some scholars argue that globalization was far more advanced in the XIX 2 Libber, Robert T. , Whispers, Ruth E. , “Globalization, Culture and Identities in Crisis”, International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 16:2 (2002), p. 273 3 Schools, Jan Art, “What is Globalization? The Definitional Issue Again”, SCAR working paper 109 (2002), p. 2 4 A. T. Carney, Inc.
Global Policy Group & Foreign Policy Magazine, “Measuring Globalization”, Foreign policy, 122 (2001 p. 56 5 Globalization”, Foreign policy, 122 (2001 p. 64 6 Algerian, Philippe, ћOpen World: the truth about globalization (Abacus, 2003), Doran-like Kampala (1207347) century. 7 Nevertheless, the impact of globalization nowadays is undeniable and so is accompanying fears and misconceptions that gather people into organizations. What is more, some people even die while expressing their concerns and dissatisfaction, like did young Italian Carlo Giuliani during protest in Genoa in 2001.
So what are those things that causes so much disconcert? As Douglas Keller in his sociological study states that globalization critics claim that globalization produces an undermining of democracy, a cultural homogeneities, and destruction of natural species and the environment-8 Therefore, Philippe Algeria insists, more broadly globalization can be seen as a focus of popular fears about the might of the cuisines, the pace of economic change and, primarily, sense of powerlessness in the face of intangible global forces.
Although there is hint of truth in these statements, they are still not true enough to be terrified. 9 In fact, as British business writer John Key argues, term ћglobalization[l seems to be often used as umbrella term to put the blame for negative nowadays] occurrences just as once term ћprevarications was used by opponents of marionettes reforms. To sum up, there are many ways of understanding and looking at globalization.
Some people claim it is just a metaphor expressing the hope for the better future, others see it as a path of values and ideologies, a process initiated in 1648 by forming states, through collapse of Soviet Union and end of socialism, to capitalism and democracy. On the other hand, it is difficult to say if this journey is successful. Number of wars and conflicts since asses can contradict it so one can claim that this hope for better future crashed. Also, current world is divided into the biggest amount of states in the history.
It may be a way to resist the effect of globalization or just a will of people to identify with their region and culture because one deeds to remember that the importance Of a State is decreasing in the time when boundaries have smaller and smaller meaning. Even though there are many doubts 7 Roseland, Ben, “Babylon and on? Globalization and International Political Economy’, Review of International Political Economy, (10) 2003, p. 664 8 Economy”, Review of International Political Economy, (10) 2003, p. 64 9 Algerian, Philippe, ћOpen World: the truth about globalizationњ (Abacus, 2003), p. 17 about explaining the meaning of globalization, there is one certain advantage: the discussion about it was a reason to rethink all political, economic and oral issues like power, identity, time, space, and ideologies. Elise P. Irises in her article n The Lasting Marriage between Nation and State Despite Globalizationњ analyses further and explains that what causes concern is transformations in the patterns of interactions of state with both the market and society.
She argues that change is undoubtedly and seems to be inevitably happening, so people need to rethink define actions of certain concepts as established ones seem no longer reflect current circumstances. First and the most traditional approach of globalization is economical interconnectedness. It has the most noticeable and palpable effect on what is referred by Mary Calder as a global civil society. 10 In words of John Clark, globalization has been predominantly seen as an economic process or, more accurately, a process whose primary driving forces are economic ones. 1 Open markets, free trade ? those are the means of rise non-state actors in global arena as nowadays firms, transnational corporations are increasingly independent from nation-state provided that there are no strict regulations that state can impose on such company. Hence, there is emerging fear, which as been discussed in Philippe Legionnaires ћOpen Worlds – private corporations invading and claiming more power and legitimacy that it should ever have and therefore imposing threat of new kind of imperialism to the world society.
However, there is strong and legitimate evidence that it is not true, there are measures taken to prevent totalitarian rule of companies on global stage, such as international organizations like World Trade Organization (WTFO), World Bank or International Monetary Fund (MIFF). 12 Moreover, it is argued that the consequent fear of monopoly of organizations mentioned above is unfounded for states that generate them being defensive of their national interest and therefore 10 Calder, Mary, “Global civil society – an answer to war” (Polity, 2003) Clarke, John, “Turning Inside Out?
Globalization, Neo-liberalism and Welfare States”, Anthropological, 45 (2003), p. 202 12 p. 17 11 controlling their agendas and activities. 13 What is more, in the research carried out by Linda Weiss it is pointed out that in the developed economies, where most of the legitimacy of companies debate is raised, about 90 per cent of production is still made for the domestic markets and about the same regenerate of consumption is locally produced . 14 Therefore it can be conducted that there is no real danger from the multi-national corporations.
On the contrary, according to the unalienable model of globalization, the comparative advantage, such as economic and political integration, new economic opportunities, free trade and consequently promotion of the demonstration are far more valuable and important both to developed and developing countries than potential loss. 15 On the other hand, recently increasing popularity is observed on debate conducted by many scholars whether or not traditional Westphalia system, hence, nation-states are declining. Fifths was true, it would mean that global processes that are leading to it are detrimental for states and, as a result, for nations.
However, a number of scholars agree that it is not happening. To illustrate the point, John Clarke observes that the increasing power of capital and the extension of market relations are primarily understood as a challenge to the state and that is an attempt to juxtapose those concepts and create misunderstanding. He explores matter further and states that while political-economic analysts view libations as dissolving borders and capacities of nation-states, political- institutionalism approaches view nation-states as place capable of adaptation to the external pressures of globalization. 6 On the other hand, it is proven that nation-state is not about to lose its sovereignty, although it might lose some of its monopolies (for example, of telecommunication), which is not a bad thing. On the contrary, the fewer monopolies society, state or region has, the freer and more 13 Keller, Douglas, ‘Theorizing Globalization”, Sociological Theory, 20 (2002), up. 96-297 Weiss, Linda, “Globalization and national governance: antinomy or interdependence? Review of International Studies, 25:05 (1999), p. 63 15 Smith, Tony “Globalization. A Systematic Marxian Account”, (Brills-Elided- Boston, 2006), Chi. 2 16 Clarke, John, “Turning Inside Out?
Globalization, Neo-liberalism and Welfare States”, Anthropological, 45 (2003), up. 204-205 14 democratic it becomes. Moreover, Elise Irises in her article backs thoughts Of acknowledged scholars such as B. Moore Jar. Who insists on necessity of creating strong nation-states in the developing world, because it still remains racial to create motives citizens to control public authority. 17 Moreover, there are international organizations, above all, the United Nations Organization and belonging bodies, which am to facilitate cooperation in international security, economic development, and to achieve world peace.
Therefore it can be conducted that not only nation-state is still needed in global society, but it also has real power, legitimacy and capabilities, which if even partially gives up it turns up to be in favor of demonstration. Mention of demonstration immediately brings into the debate about libations values and human rights on the world stage, which are important in current international relations. As John Boil and George M Thomas argue human beings everywhere have similar basic needs and desires, can act in accordance with common principles of authority and remain loyal to the community goals within society he is living.
It is also true that there is poverty, inequality and threats to human security around the globe. Therefore, their argument is that everyone and everywhere is potential beneficiary of International Non-Governmental Organizations activity. 18 For instance, the world-famous INGOT “Amnesty International” is doing a great deal in defending human rights almost in every corner in the world and therefore is quite effective organization. Another one of a good few INGOT is 350 which fights for solving the climate crisis.
What is more, increasing globalization encloses to nation-states as well as individual human beings variety of opportunities not available before. Extension and intensity of trade are rising. More and more data along with newer and newer technology is accessible. 17 Irises, Elise P. , “The Lasting Marriage between Nation and State despite Globalization”, International Political Science Review, 25 (2004), up. 251 -257 18 Boil, John, Thomas, George M. , ‘World Culture in the World Polity: A Century of International Non-Governmental Organization”, American Sociological Review, 62:2 (1 997), p. 73 Exchange of values is easier. However, one can claim that media can provide not only good for societies and world peace ones. The consensus in looking for the definition of a word “globalization” has not been reached and three basic positions about it can be noticed. Hyper- globalizes believe in emergence of a single economy and a death of a nation- Tate, skeptics claim that globalization is just an ideological device used by politicians and academics, and transmogrification’s say that something has changed but not everything.
However, one can conclude it is the comprehensive term for the emergence of a global society in which economic, political, environmental, and cultural events in one part of the world quickly come to have significance for people in other parts of the world. It also involves the growth of multinational corporations (businesses that have operations or investments in many countries) and transnational reparations (businesses that see themselves functioning in a global marketplace). The international institutions that oversee world trade and finance play an increasingly important role in this era, too.
To understand all regulations and decisions made or influenced by them, social scientists need to remember about new position of state, sovereignty, and security in international relations. Especially that there are also some negative effects associated with globalization. It’s not an equal process, and often the link is only one way (for example, resources going out of Iraq or India with nothing f equal value going back in). Rapid spread of diseases, illicit drugs, crime, terrorism, and uncontrolled migration are a few other fears linked to constantly increasing globalization.