Developmental psychology essay

Even further I am going to incorporate the understandings gained from the observation of two specific children of different ages and in different phases of development coupled with a compiled and completed developmental checklist that incorporated behaviors and skills observed as well as those that were not present which drew concern in comparison to the red flags that were entailed in the checklists for each child’s age group.

One of the most important components of child development is the ability to recognize developmental issues and to distinguish these issues as early as possible in order to provide early intervention measures to assist the child and get them on track. If early detection is not distinguished, then a child who is significantly behind in normal developmental milestones can continue to struggle throughout the rest of their lives.

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Having a tool such as an observational developmental milestone checklist with didst incentive expected areas of development based upon age range and standard abilities as well as a set of common red flags to gauge developmental stages with, can enhance early detection and intervention in areas that meet red flag criteria. TO ensure that children with potential problems reach a healthy and productive future it is necessary to have a firm understanding about the impact of developmental disabilities.

Maintaining an awareness of warning signs and understanding the significance of acting early will assist those who are working with and caring for children in many ways. Being able to measure a chi lid’s progress in terms of milestones and gauging their development by observing how they play, interact, behave, learn, and speak can give the observer greater insight to where a child may have a developmental problem. When a concern arises, there are steps that one can take to handle a child’s delay in reaching those milestones.

A positive side that exists is the fact that the earlier a parent or provider recognizes that a child may have a delay in reaching a milestone, the earlier measures can be incorporated to help the child reach their full potential. A child’s development is very important because it has to do with many aspects of their abilities. From motor, physical and social areas to emotional and cognitive abilities, the process of a child’s development in these areas can ultimately have an influence on other eye areas of development and can ultimately effect if they develop fully and successfully.

Being able to catch areas of developmental weaknesses in children early On can supply those assessing the child the chance to intervene and face the issue head on in order to combat obstacles. The age that a child takes their first step, says their first word, smiles for the first time and waves goodbye offer very important clues. A delay in development occurs when a child reaches a milestone much later than the average development rate.

Performing developmental assessments for children during various stages of authority can help parents, caregivers, teachers, physicians and care providers understand the challenges that a child may be experiencing as well as their strengths. By being able to observe children and recognize the different areas of ability and struggle can assist those in a child’s life by providing the opportunity of detection of developmental concerns early on and therefore present those that care for the child the ability to acquire support if needed.

Teachers, caregivers, care providers and parents can also adjust activities to improve their child’s developmental problems and enhance their progress in hose areas. In this paper I will provide a suggested activity to enhance an area of concern in the two children observed and included in the covered checklists below. This paper will incorporate information regarding each of the two children such as age and name it will also include the breakdown each checklist including checklist areas of strength and weakness for both children.

It will also include an activity for one area of weakness and will express why the area is one of concern. This paper will also have an attached lesson plan with the activity suggested for future use and application. The two checklists that are being analyzed incorporate various areas of development that are important to each of the child’s age group. The first checklist was filled out in accordance to observation performed thirty six months and two weeks after the child’s date of birth. The child’s name is Ryan Weaver and he was three and a half years old at the time of the described assessment.

Developmental abilities were observed and recorded in comparison with the appropriate age range and milestones of the child. Age range for selected for Ryan Weaver’s milestone assessment was between here and four years of age. The second checklist details the observations of a child named Tremor Jones who was of a different age and in a different developmental phase than the first child, Ryan Weaver. The checklist consisted of similar and separate milestones that were age appropriate and specific to the age range that Tremor fit into. Observation of the second child took place when the child was twelve months, two days old or one year of age.

The developmental checklist selected for Tremor included age appropriate milestones and was ranged from eight to twelve months of age. Checklist 1 The checklist for Ryan Weaver aged three and a half contains several significant areas of fundamental abilities and processes that are expected to have happen by his age or that should develop within a Set amount of time. The areas of development that his milestones were observed under were physical development the two sub categories under physical development were movement and hand and finger skills, Language, cognitive, social and emotional.

The checklist as stated previously consisted of milestones that are reasonably expected to develop between ages three and four. In the event milestone section, motor abilities were observed. The included observations deals with limb ambulation and fine motor skills such as hopping up and down and balancing on one foot for a short amount of time. Having the ability to independently walk up and down stairs and playing with a ball. Kicking a ball forward, throwing it, catching it and bouncing it are all motor skills that a child his age should be able to do if they are developing normally.

Other movement skills observed were activities such as riding toys such as tries and being able to partake in various art activities that he used is hands and fingers to accomplish. Activities chiefly entailed writing and drawing focusing on the ability to use the pinching motion. Observed endeavors comprised of copying simple shapes such as square, composing a simple drawing with a small amount of body parts, using scissors to cut paper, writing letters from the alphabet and feeding himself with a spoon.

Language milestones entailed the ability to understand concepts such as items being the same or different, speaking in 5-6 word sentences and asking questions. It also included mastering basic rules of grammar, speaking clearly o adults could understand and telling stories. Cognitive milestones covered naming colors correctly, understanding the concept of counting and knowing a small amount of numbers. It incorporates the conception Of time, following simple commands, recalling story parts and understanding simple concepts such as different colors and same colors.

Cognitive milestones for his age group were limited to two areas, the engagement in fantasy play and pretend and understanding causality. Social milestones were consistent with a child being interested in new experiences, cooperating, interacting and playing tit peers or other children, participating in role-play such as playing “mom” and “dad”. Having the ability to dress and undress oneself and participating in independent activities. Emotional milestones were also limited to only two areas which were distinguishing between real and fantasy reality and believing in imaginary friends and monsters.

All of these areas are consistent with abilities and milestones that a child of 3 or 4 years should experience on some level and they are all clues to give an idea of where a child is developmentally and where they should be. By using the checklist and observing the incorporated behaviors or the lack thereof caregivers can recognize potential delays and issues that Ryan may have. Based upon Ryan’s checklist he is on track for his age group in many of the covered developmental stages and can perform most of the skills in several of the milestone groups.

According to the observation and checklist performed Ryan is capable of all of the movement and motor skill activities, he Was able to conduct two of the six hands and fingers skills. The two he was able to successfully complete were drawing circles and squares and feeding himself tit a spoon. For the area of language he was able to perform all except two of the milestones. The language skills that Ryan was proficient at understanding were the ability to recognizing the concept of the “same” and “different’, comprehending basic grammar rules, speaking in 5 to 6 word sentences and asking questions.

He successfully participated in all listed cognitive abilities except for following three part commands and he was adept at the emotional milestones covered on the checklist. He had the competency to distinguish between reality and fantasy and believing in imaginary friends and monsters. Areas that raised concern based upon the outcome of Ryan’s milestone checklist were social milestones because he did not actively participate in any of the activities except for one which incorporated role play through the illustration and acting out of his parents daily roles.

He was interested pretending to be his mom and dad and this was the solitary play that he partook in. His inability to execute other social tasks outside of his comfort zone may show a delay in social cognition and areas lacking self confidence and social aptitude. The area of motor skills which highlighted hand and finger skills also had deficits which can entail a lack in fine motor ability and comprehension. Language milestones are the final area that drew developmental concerns because Ryan was unable to neither speak clearly nor tell stories of any kind.

With his emotional milestones mastered the observations that led to the recognition that although Ryan believes in imaginary friends and monsters which show imagination, he is not properly equipped or developed enough yet to express imaginary happenings or speak clearly and proficiently. This leads to concerns that there may be an interruption in language development, especially in the application of words, sentences and independent ideas. Ryan’s greatest strengths were in his physical development and motor abilities. His desire to participate in various activities of movement showed that his physical development is not of concern.

He is healthy and active and enjoys physical interactions and sport. For a child of 3 h years old, physical activity is a large part of their daily lives and enhances their strength, endurance and health. Children Ryan’s age are ere active and love to jump, hop, skip, run, dance, climb, spin and participate in many outdoor activities. The fact that Ryan does not show a lack of interest in these activities displays that he is developing properly in accordance with his age group and standard milestones. The chief area of developmental concern for Ryan was in the area of social skills.

His inability to perform standard and normal social functions for his age group raises concerns that he is afraid of doing what he wants and interacting with others, including peers of his own age as well as children of various stages of development. Although all children are unique and develop at different rates for the most part the social milestones incorporated on the checklist are things that Ryan should be actively participating in. Being interested in new experiences, playing well with others, participating in imaginative play and playing independently are all areas of social development that improve other areas of development.

Areas such as cognitive development and emotional development are both partially reliant upon a child’s social ability. Peer relationships for example, are very important to social development. With Ryan’s lack of desire to interact with others it hinders his social development even further and can even have negative effects on his language abilities and cognitive gains. The book Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective states “Constructivist approaches to cognitive development have been reviewed in a number of connections recently (e. G. Zamia, Lifespan, & Title, 1999; Hogan & Tugged, 1999; Oregon, 1997). These reviews generally conclude that under specific circumstances, including many that OCCUr frequently and bounteously in the course of peer interaction, conversation with other children can promote children’s perspective-taking skills, problem solving, language skills, academic achievement, scientific and logical reasoning, and a host of other important cognitive and social-cognitive accomplishments. ” (PEER, S. C. L, 2006) On the checklist it demonstrates that Ryan’s development in social skills is lacking because oft specific areas.

Ryan does not interact with peers and ignores other children instead of playing and communicating with them. Ryan also chooses to not communicate well or respond to others outside of his mother and father. The other area of social milestones that draws concern is his non-interest in new activities, discoveries and experiences. Though it is normal for young children to want to be in a familiar environment, at Ryan’s age they generally enjoy various activities, including those outside of the home and that stimulate various senses.

Ryan’s inability or lack of desire to be social raises red flags. Social experiences and peer relationships can encourage language development, self-confidence, problem solving abilities and cognitive functions. Although wrought observation Ryan would role play in his parent’s roles, he did not participate in fantasy play and did not participate in role play with others. This also draws concern because interactive play with others can influence emotional development providing self-realization, independence and confidence.

The book Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective states “Social pretend play permits young children to successfully work through fears and other emotional issues (Parker , 1 989; Rubin, Feint, & Vandenberg, 1983; Sawyer, 1997). In addition, even very young children use pretend play to establish and maintain social relationships with peers (Ackerman, 1 996; Eastman, 1983). ” (PEER, S.

C L, 2006) In order to assist in Ryan’S social development, encouraging him to play with others and to participate in interactive activities would aid in his social milestones, especially in areas where he is delayed. One activity that can promote social development for Ryan that is age appropriate is to encourage interaction with peers through the application of a group activity called Spinning a Web with Friends. This activity is for preschool and early childhood development and is an activity that builds social development through communication and interactive play.

The activity can be applied at daycare, preschool or at home with play dates. It is important to get parents as involved as possible in the process of building Ryan’s social skills and encode raging them to participate by applying simple social building activities such as Spinning a Web with Friends is one way that they can be included. The significance of engaging Ryan in social pastimes it will augment his lack of social proficiency. The activity has been provided as an attachment in an easy to read and follow lesson plan under the same heading as the activities name.

Checklist 2 The second developmental checklist was performed on a one year old named Tremor Jones. Tremor’s checklist provided for the observations related to the same areas as Ryan; however it entailed different abilities for observation due to age range. Tremor’s milestone checklist is age appropriate for children 8-12 months and the developmental milestones included on Tremor’s checklist surround developmental abilities that are crucial for infants to effectively tauter into toddlers. The areas of developmental milestones on checklists are the same.

Just like Ryan Weaver’s checklist Tremor’s includes Movement and hand and finger abilities, cognitive development, language milestones and social and emotional abilities. The checklist consists of developmental skills and abilities that are congruent with milestones that are expected to take place between the ages of eight months and one year of age. However there are developmental milestones that are included on the checklist that happen during a very specific age span such as from ten to twelve months or room eight to ten months in particular.

All age periods fall under the checklist age range and are included to specify specific skills that are projected to take place at certain ages. In the Movement milestones section, physical aptitude and abilities were observed. The developmental milestones observed included the infant’s ability to perform corporeal abilities that occur as the infant matures form month to month. Capabilities such as sitting up independently, crawling on his belly, propping himself up on his hands and knees and crawling on hands and knees are all skills that a baby has to reform in order to gain strength, balance and the ability to walk and toddle.

Movement milestones for infants aged ten to twelve months include transitioning himself from crawling to lying down, leveraging himself and pulling himself to a standing position from a sitting one. The child also gains the capacity to stand without support for short periods as well as take a few steps unassisted. Hand and Finger Skills and Motor Skills include investigating surrounding objects as well as physical skills that incorporates cognitive functions. Performing the motion of clasping hands, pinching actions and playing with objects all occur between eight and twelve months.

A child’s aptitudes to interact with their environment by placing objects into and out of a container are more easily and successfully done between ten and twelve months of age. Cognitive functions and milestones that happen between eight and ten months include the exploration of the immediate environment and of objects in various ways. Banging, throwing and shaking objects are all areas of cognitive function that develop over time. As the child matures expanding cognitive milestones becomes even more apparent in a hill’s behavior.

The competence to recognize images and relate them to names and the imitation of facial expressions, gestures and sounds occurs between nine and twelve months of age. Language milestones such as responding to verbal sues and communication through body language begin at ten months. At eight to ten months babies can babble in a variety of sounds and can form one and two syllable words such as “mama” and “dada”, at one year a child can also recognize and apply those terms to specific people.

Social and emotional milestones become more apparent as the child egging to display and communicate likes and dislikes through both limited verbal and physical communication. Between eight and twelve months a child begins to exhibit being anxious and discontent with strangers and can be unhappy and emotional when familiar people such as parents and regular caretakers leave. A child at this age displays preference to toys and people as well as will begin to mimic behaviors of others.

Motor abilities that are covered in this category are the ability to eat finger foods independently and extend limbs while being dressed. Areas that raised concern based on the outcome of the checklist regarding development were Tremor’s language development and motor skills, specifically finger and hand development. Although Tremor is developed fully in the area of movement he is not fully capable of performing age appropriate functions with his hands such as pinching, grasping, using objects in various ways, placing objects into containers or taking them out or imitating drawing or writing by scribbling.

The delay in all of these abilities is a concern because they provide the child with an understanding of ability, senses about the world around them. It also lids key muscles that support other areas of physical and motor development and will lead to his ability to pick up and release various objects and carry them in later years. Tremors language skills drew even more concern because he does not respond or react as a child of his age should.

The observation performed occurred when Tremor was one year and two days old not only should he be able to perform most if not all of the milestones on the list but he should be proficient in the ones he can perform. Tremor does not respond to verbal commands such as “no” he does not make physical sutures to display likes or dislikes. He also shows delays in babbling and verbal communication. These are serious red flags because the capabilities and skills that a child learns in infancy are the building blocks to future development.

The area of language is a chief component in lifelong milestones. Any delays in obtaining early language precursors can affect them in their preschool years because it can impede other significant language milestones. The book Assessment in early childhood education states “The child who does not speak normally or who is late in speaking is offered to a speech pathologist, who assesses the child’s language and prescribes activities to facilitate improved language development. ” (Worth, S.

C. , 2012, pug 36 Para 3) Tremor’s area of developmental strength is in his ability to move. He has successfully been observed performing all skills well and with precision and can be carefree and mobile to his hearts content. At the pace he is physically developing he will be able to walk in no time and he gets around without much obstacle. To address the concerns regarding Tremor’s apparent delays in language functions it is important that uncommunicative interaction becomes a daily activity.

Though he is less than two years old his development in language is reliant upon colonization and interaction with others, especially parents and direct caregivers. One activity that can enhance language development for Tremor that is age appropriate is the Matching Animal Game. This activity is for late infancy and is an activity intended to develop and encourage language and matching/recognition skills through sound recognition, communication, and Interactive play. The activity can be done in the child’s daycare center or at home with the inclusion of the retake and/or parent.

It is a versatile game that can be adapted as the child ages to further develop language development and different variations Of the game can enhance other areas Of development. The activity has been provided as an attachment in an easy to read and follow lesson plan under the same heading as the activities name. As stated at the beginning of this paper, performing developmental assessments for children during various stages of maturity can help parents, caregivers, teachers, physicians and care providers understand the challenges that a child may be experiencing as well s their strengths.