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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Coinage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if us bequest rights restrictions require it. Are You a New-Style or an Old-Style Manager? Management and Organization Classical Perspective Scientific Management Bureaucratic Organizations Administrative Principles Humanistic Perspective Early Advocates Human Relations Movement Human Resources Perspective New Manager Self-Test: Evolution of Style Behavioral Sciences Approach Quantitative Perspective
Recent Historical Trends Systems Thinking Contingency View Total Quality Management Innovative Management Thinking for a Changing World Contemporary Management Tools Managing the Tech oenology-Driven Workplace Learns Eng Outcomes Chapter Outline Tubules, 2010/seed under license from Shuttlecock. Com PIT Chapter 2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Understand how historical forces influence the practice of management. 2. Identify and explain major developments in the history of management thought. 3. Describe the major components of the classical and humanistic management perspectives. Discuss the quantitative perspective and its current use in organizations. 5. Explain the major concepts of systems thinking, the contingency view, and total quality management. 6. Name contemporary management tools and some reasons management trends change over time. 7. Describe the management changes brought about by a technological workplace, including the role of customer relationship management, outsourcing, and supply chain management. Nana Photo, 2010/seed under license from Shuttlecock. Com The Evolution of Management Thinking Introduction Are You a New-Style or an Old-Style Manager?
The following are various behaviors in which a manager may engage when relating to subordinates. Read each statement carefully and rate each one Mostly True or Mostly False to reflect the extent to which you would use that behavior. Environment 2 Mostly True False 1 . Closely supervise my subordinates in order to get better work from them. 2. Set the goals and objectives for my subordinates and sell them on the merits of my plans. 3. Set up controls to ensure that my subordinates are getting the job done. 4. Make sure that my subordinates’ work is planned out for them. 5.
Check with y subordinates daily to see if they need any help. 6. Step in as soon as reports indicate that the job is slipping. 3 Planning 7. Push my people to meet schedules if necessary. 8. Have frequent meetings to learn from others what is going on. Theory X assumptions are typically considered inappropriate for today’s workplace. Where do you fit on the X-Y scale? Does your score reflect your perception of yourself as a current or future manager? Theory X X-Y scale 10 5 4 Theory Y Organizing Scoring and Interpretation: Add the total number of Mostly True answers and mark your score on the scale below.
Theory X tends to be “old-style” management and Theory Y “new-style,” because the styles are based on different assumptions about people. To learn more about these assumptions, you can refer to Exhibit 2. 4 and review the assumptions related to Theory X and Theory Y. Strong w hat do managers at U. S. Based companies such as Cisco Systems and Goldman Cash have in common with managers at Indian’s Data Group and Informs Technologies? One thing is an interest in applying a new concept called jugged (pronounced joy-guard).
Jugged perhaps will be a buzzword that quickly fades from managers’ vocabularies, but it could also become as ubiquitous in management circles as terms such as total quality or kamikaze. Jugged basically refers to an innovation mindset, used widely by Indian companies, that strives to meet customers’ immediate needs quickly and inexpensively. With research and development budgets strained in today’s economy, it’s an approach U. S. Managers are picking up on, and the term jugged has been popping up in seminars, academia, and business consultancies.
Managers are always on the lookout for fresh ideas, innovative management approaches, and new tools and techniques. Management philosophies and organizational forms change over time to meet new needs. The questionnaire at the beginning of this chapter describes two differing philosophies about how people should be managed, and you will learn more about these ideas in this chapter. If management is always changing, why does history matter to managers? The workplace of today is different from what it was 50 years ago?indeed, from what it was even 10 years ago.
Yet today’s managers find that some ideas and practices from the past are still highly relevant. For example, certain management practices that seem modern, such as open-book management or employee stock ownership, have actually been around for a Eng time. These techniques have repeatedly gained and lost popularity since the early twentieth Leading Controlling 6 33 34 Part 1 Introduction to Management century because of shifting historical forces. 2 A historical perspective provides a broader way of thinking, a way of searching for patterns and determining whether they recur across time periods.
It is a way of learning from others’ mistakes So as not to repeat them; learning from others’ successes so as to repeat them in the appropriate situation; and most of all, learning to understand why things happen to improve our organizations in he future. This chapter provides a historical overview of the ideas, theories, and management philosophies that have contributed to making the workplace what it is today. The final section of the chapter looks at some recent trends and current approaches that build on this foundation of management understanding.
This foundation illustrates that the value of studying management lies not in learning current facts and research but in developing a perspective that will facilitate the broad, long-term view needed for management success. Go to the Small Group Breakout on pages 55-56 that pertains to how satirical events and forces shape the lives of individuals. Studying history doesn’t mean merely arranging events in chronological order; it means developing an understanding of the impact of societal forces on organizations.
Studying history is a way to achieve strategic thinking, see the big picture, and improve conceptual skills. Let’s begin by examining how social, political, and economic forces have influenced organizations and the practice of management. 3 Social forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. What do people value? What do people need? What are the standards of behavior among people? These forces shape what is known as the social contract, which refers to the unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships among people and between employees and management.
One social force is the changing attitudes, ideas, and values of Generation Y employees (sometimes called Millennial). 4 These young workers, the most educated generation in the history of the United States, grew up technologically adept and globally conscious. Unlike many workers of the past, they typically are not hesitant to question their superiors and challenge he status quo. They want a work environment that is challenging and us abortive, with access to cutting Eng-edge technology, opportunities to learn and further their careers and personal goals, and the power to make substantive decisions and changes in the workplace.
In addition, Gene Y workers have prompted a growing focus on work/life balance, reflected in trends such as telecommuting, flextime, shared jobs, and irreconcilableness sabbaticals. Political forces refer to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations. One significant political force is the increased role of government in business after the collapse of companies in the financial services sector and major problems in the auto industry. Some managers expect increasing government regulations in the coming years. Political forces also include basic assumptions underlying the political system, such as the desirability of self-government, property rights, contract rights, the definition of justice, and the determination of innocence or guilt of a crime. Economic forces pertain to the availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society. Governments, military agencies, churches, schools, ND business organizations in every society require resources to achieve their goals, and economic forces influence the allocation of scarce resources.
Companies in every industry have been affected by the recent financial crisis that was the worst since the Great Depression of the 1 9305. Reduced consumer spending and tighter access to credit have curtailed growth and left companies scrambling to meet goals with limited resources. Although liquidity for large corporations showed an increase in early 201 0, smaller companies continued to struggle to find funding-6 Another economic trend hat affects managers worldwide is the growing economic power of countries such as China, India, and Brazil. 35 Chapter 2 The Evolution of Management Thinking EXHIBIT 2. 1 Management practices and perspectives vary in response to these social, political, and economic forces in the larger society. Exhibit 2. 1 illustrates the evolution of significant management perspectives over time. The timeline reflects the dominant time period for each approach, but elements of each are still used in today’s organizations. 8 Management Perspectives over Time Open (Collaborative) Innovation The Technology Driven Workplace