He’s saying that there have men recognized psychological shortcomings, behaviors and problems across 12 millennia; but that attempts to study individual and categorical psychological states and conditions seriously only began in the 19th Century, and even then were not very successful at all. In my opinion, (The long past) there have been psychological issues throughout the history’ of human kind but (the short history) as a science, Psychology is very young. So it’s the history of the STUDY of psychology itself that is short, not psychology in and of itself.
In your opinion, which person or perspective has had the most influence on the growth of psychology? Psychology, the study of human behavior, actually is a very recent development when compared to human history. Dry F-reed is generally credited for a documented attempt to understand human behavior and psychoanalysis. The most influential person in terms of psychology by influence was Sigmund Freud, hands down. Q 2 How do you think gender, race, and ethnicity have affected your behavior? Provide an example from your life where you have observed people from different ethnic backgrounds or genders behaving differently in the same situation.
Individuals of different ethnicity and ages vary when it comes to behavior. Gender – Men and women differ in the way they deal with a host of situations. An easy example would be that a male response to a stressful situation would be fight or flight. This is a typically, male, aggressive response. A woman’s response on the other hand would be to tend and befriend. This is a typically female, nurturing response. This tendency to be nurturing versus being aggressive is generalized to many situations. With the changes in the woman’s status in society however we are seeing gender role reversals.
Race – One of the classic examples of differences in race and ethnicity comes from the differences between the eastern traditions and the western traditions. The west is more of an individualistic society leading to choices and behaviors that reflect this individualism. The East is more of a traditional society and this is also reflected in their behavior. An Asian for example would behave more formally in the presence of elders, while an American would be as candid with a senior citizen as he would be with his classmate. Formality in behavior would be dictated more by status in society than by age in America ND vice versa in Asia.
Ethnicity – Members of the same ethnic group share the same cultural values. It is therefore obvious that different cultures will have different practices which will be reflected in the behavior of group members. Examples would be certain rituals followed, and may or may not include religion. I cannot say off the top of my head an example from my life where I have observed different ethnic backgrounds or genders behaving differently in the same situation except for maybe at the Government Aid offices like Children and Families or Wick. WOK 2 CHECKPOINT BEE 225 Checkpoint: Heredity and Hormones
Write 350. To 700-word essay in which you compare and contrast the influence of heredity and hormones on human behavior. Include in your essay a discussion on the endocrine system, identification of hormones and the glands responsible for secreting them, and genetics, behavior genetics, and evolutionary psychology. Heredity and hormones can both influence an individual’s behavior. Heredity is the passing of traits from a parent to their offspring. Determining how much heredity and genetics plays a role in a person’s behavior brings up the controversy of nature versus nurture.
Scientists have attempted to identify pacific genes that may be responsible for behaviors such as aggression, shyness, depression, anxiety, and risk-taking. Studies involving twins have attempted to correlate genetics and behavior, though in those cases, the researchers were not looking for a particular gene, but for similarities within families (Morris and Moist, 2005). Hormones, chemicals that are released from certain cells within the body and affect other parts of the body as part of the endocrine system, also play a role in a person’s behavior by determining mood.
The endocrine system consists of glands such as the tributary gland, the thyroid gland, the hypothalamus, the pineal body, the adrenal glands, and the ovaries and testes. The thyroid gland secretes Dehydrogenation which is responsible for metabolic rates. If a person has a hyperthyroid condition in which too much of the hormone is secreted, the person can become over-excited and agitated, thus, affecting behavior. The testes in males secrete the hormone testosterone which has been linked to the behavior of aggression.
Women also have small quantities of testosterone that fluctuate and at times when the levels are higher may exhibit more aggressive behaviors as well. Female ovaries secrete the hormone estrogen. As the levels of estrogen fluctuate each month, a female may at times feel depressed, fatigued, irritable, or energize. The pancreas produces insulin, which is responsible for the breakdown of sugars. When not enough insulin is produced, a condition known as hypoglycemia occurs, a person’s behavior may be altered and they may seem confused, tired, and irritable (Morris and Moist, 2005).
Evolutionary psychology is a field of study that seeks to explain psychological traits in terms of genetics. These searchers contend that certain behaviors are the product of evolutionary (genetic) adaptations. Behavioral genetics studies the role that genes play in a person’s behavior. The field has changed over the years from determining if there was an influence to today’s study of molecular genetics to determine which genes are responsible for certain behaviors (Morris and Moist, 2005). Reference Morris, C. And Moist, A. 2005). Psychology: An Introduction (12th De. ). Prentice Hall. ASSIGNMENT BRAIN RESPONSE APPENDIX C ANSWER: Nerve cells and Gail cells are two most important types of cells in the human nervous system. Nerve cells, also called neurons are the basic building blocks of our nervous systems. Neurons are outnumbered by Gail cells 10 to 1; however, the main purpose of Gail cells is to support the activities of neurons. Neurons can be found in various parts of the nervous system and they vary widely in their shape and size.
Irrespective of these differences in shape and size, the basic purpose of function of all neurons is communication. Neurons perform the function of reception and transmission of messages via electrochemical impulses from different parts of the body. Neurons are of three different types; they are: Sensory neurons Interferon’s Motor neurons The categorization of neurons is done based on the body parts for which they act as communication links. For example, if we place our hand accidentally over a flame, all three types of neurons act together to help us remove our hand immediately.
The pain of the flame on the skin first generates an activity burst in sensory neurons. Sensory neurons then transmit signals to interferon’s present in the spinal cord. Interferon’s in-turn activates motor neurons, causing muscles to contract and trigger our hands to withdraw. The Soma is the cell body of the neuron. Soma contains the cell nucleus and maintains the chemical balance of the neuron. Soma connects a neuron’s dendrites to its Axon. Dendrites are mini fibers that branch out from the Soma. Dendrites receive messages from nearby neurons and transmit them to the Soma.
Depending on the type of messages received through dendrites, Soma decides whether it should send a message through the Axon to nearby neurons or not. Axons are single long fibers whose role is to carry outgoing messages to nearby neurons, glands, or muscles. The terminal buttons of the Axons store chemicals that are called the retransmitted. Neurotransmitters hold the capability Of conveying signals from one neuron to the other. When a message is fired by a neuron, neurotransmitters are released by terminal buttons. Neurotransmitters in- turn conveys the message to Dendrites belonging to nearby neurons.
Several Axons are insulated by a layer of Myelin, a whitish, fatty substance. Myelin insulation speeds up neural message conduction and prevents adjacent cell signal interference. When neurons receive sufficient proper messages, they undergo a rapid electrical change called the Nerve Impulse or Action Potential. This Action Potential then travels through the Axon towards terminal buttons, causing neurotransmitter release and message transmission to nearby neurons. There are several hundred kinds of neurotransmitters with each having a capability of producing a specific effect on specific nerve circuits.
Neurotransmitters can play either inhibitory or excitatory roles. In the inhibitory role, neurotransmitters block Action Potential communication, whereas in the excitatory role, they help in communicating an Action Potential. The following are examples of some common neurotransmitters: Acetylene’s Serotonin in Dopamine GAB Acetylene’s and Dopamine are examples of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters respectively. Acetylene’s plays its excitatory role and helps in the transmission of impulses between control muscles and motor neurons.
Dopamine on the other hand restricts Action Potential communication in motor neurons. Acetylene’s and Dopamine combination is therefore critical to controlled voluntary movement. Neurotransmitter imbalances can result in harmful mental and psychological illnesses. Involuntary muscle spasms, the characteristic symptoms of Parkinson asses, are attributed to low levels of Dopamine. Serotonin is believed to regulate anger, aggression, appetite, body temperature, mood, sleep, sexuality, and vomiting. GAB is an amino acid derivative that plays the role of an inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Alcohol Increases the effectiveness and activity of GAB and since GAB is inhibitory, the presence of alcohol further inhibits neurons from receiving messages through GAB. GAB neurons are not present in any one specific location of the brain, so the presence of alcohol within the brain restricts several activities and therefore influences behavioral output. WEEK 3 WOK Q 1 Provide one example each of classical and operant conditioning in your own life. Identify either the stimulus and response or reinforces in each case. Which type would you prefer for learning and why?
First, classical conditioning occurred through my life when I had to learn English grammar from a worksheet approach using a stop watch. My teacher was very strict, so the timer sounded when I had to reveal my answers. The stimulus was the timer. My response was typically anxiety over choosing the correct answer under such pressure. Learning was reinforced by the rockroses because if missed a question or made an error, I had to begin again from scratch. An example of operant conditioning occurred when I learned handwriting skills. When I made a perfect cursive letter, my teacher used a sticker as a rein forcer.
The stimulus, I feel, was praise. When it was given, performed better. My response was better handwriting skills. When assessing which type I prefer for learning and why, it is definitely operant conditioning because praise and positive reinforcement motivated me in a safe, supportive environment. On the other hand, the first type caused too much anxiety and hindered my learning. WOK Q 2 Think about the last time you attended a lecture or were in a classroom. Applying the information processing model, why did some things make it into your short-term memory and some things into your long-term memory?
How can knowing this process increase your learning potential? How would you reduce the likelihood of forgetting important information? According to the information-processing model, memory is divided up into several stages: (1 ) Sensory memory- This is the first stage of memory and is of brief duration but has high information capacity. Each of the five senses has a sensory store that briefly retains information selection and processing. During the third of a second that information lasts in sensory store it is mentally scanned and only those characteristics that stand out or are important are retained for further processing. 2) Short Term Memory (SST) This stage of memory can retain information for up to approximately 30 seconds. Long enough to look up a phone number and dial it. Whether or not the information gets passed along to the next level depends on how important it is. If someone is faced with a survival crisis – a fire, a medical emergency, etc. – the brain will give its full attention to that need and any incoming information that is not related to, that need will be lost. Likewise, if there are any emotional barriers because of circumstances – loss of a friend, divorce, pending move, etc. The incoming data will be ignored and IS gone for good. That information which does make it through moves to the next stage. Working memory is a theoretical concept related to SST and it performs the function of processing information for long-term storage. Two important processes that occur here are rehearsal and encoding. To maintain information in working memory it is necessary to rehearse it. To make information more memorable and resistant to fading from long-term memory, encoding the information through pictures, mnemonics or labeling IS necessary. 3) Long-term memory (LET) – Long-term memory is the third stage in memory where information is stored, usually in an inactive form, and is available for retrieval on demand. Now… Think about the last time you attended a lecture or were in a classroom. Applying the above information-processing model, why did some things make it into your short-term memory and some things into your long- ERM memory? More than likely, the information that you did not pay attention to by rehearsing did not move from SST to LET. Since, SST can retain information for up to approximately 30 seconds, it is long enough to look up a phone number and dial it.
Whether or not the information gets passed along to the next level depends on how important it is. If you were faced with a crisis ? a fire alarm during lecture – the brain will give its full attention to that need and any incoming information that is not related to that need will be lost. Likewise, as mentioned above, if there are any motional barriers because Of circumstances ? thinking about something that happened the night before – the incoming lecture data will be ignored and is gone for good. That information which does make it through moves to the next stage.
Things like those mentioned above were probably occurring at your last lecture. If you paid close attention or rehearsed the lecture information, it was more likely to move to ITEM. If not, it stayed in SST and then faded. Can you think of exact events that were occurring at your last lecture and why some information might have stayed in SST (i. E. Thinking about something else, emotional over some event) and other information passed into L TM (i. E. Paying attention, interested in material, information linked to past experience or previously learned information, etc. ). 2.
How can knowing this process increase your learning potential? It explains how you can improve your memory, and thus increase your learning potential. For example, a person can best improve their memory by practicing skills in rehearsing and encoding information. Without these processes it is more difficult for a person to store and retrieve information from long-term memory. It is literally impossible to recall anything unless mom form of structure and organization has been placed on it. To remember well, it is necessary to organize new information largely by relating it to something already known. 3.
How would you red cue the likelihood of forgetting important information? You can use the techniques suggested by the information-processing model to increase the likelihood that the information moves into long-term memory) and can thus be remembered or recalled at a later date. Some of them include: Active learning Review Note taking Rehearsal Association Chucking and grouping Mnemonics Rhythm and rhyming Remembering written material Ideally, if learning occurred, information is retrievable from L T M. Cues are used to locate and copy matched information from L TM to Working Memory for conscious review.
Available cues, and the quality of those cues, depend on those used when the information was initially stored. Knowing how memories were stored in the past IS essential if memory recall is to be effective. Forgetting information, or the inability to locate and retrieve information, may be attributable to the way it was initially sequenced and encoded. Subsequently learned information may interfere with recall of older data and s referred to as retroactive interference. The opposite is called proactive interference.
In order to overcome fading after 30 section in SST, and retain information for longer, information must be periodically repeated, or rehearsed ? either by articulating it out loud, or by mentally simulating such articulation. In this way, the information will re-enter the short-term store and be retained for a further period. The process of consolidation (Transfer of short-term memory to long term memory) is further enhanced by the relationship, if any, of an item of short-term memory to an item in long-term memory (for example, if a ensure short-term event is linked to a trauma already in long-term memory).
INTELLIGENCE PRESENTATION ATTACHED WEEK 4 Checkpoint: Skinner Article The brilliance of B. F. Skinner and his contributions to psychology are evident among parents and their toddlers or dog owners and their puppies. Both of them are intricately involved with operant conditioning, punishment, positive reinforcement, and the belief in superstitions that Skinner worked with. In fact, any time a person observes teaching or instruction others on what is acceptable and what is not, he or she will come in contact with Skinners work.
Skinner determined that through operant conditioning, where each step toward learning a behavior is reinforced, is the best way to teach anyone how to do something new, such as potty training for both children and pets. Positive reinforcement works with operant conditioning to provide a reward associated with success. This too is a powerful motivator, such as giving a dog a treat after it does a trick. Punishment too, however, plays a role in operant conditioning because it associates something unpleasant with the doing Of something discovered, like giving a child time out for hitting.
Superstition, Skinner taught us, occurs when we associate chance occurrences with whatever we were doing at certain time; like children who expect magic only when they use the right words. ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM SOLVING STIMULATION Assignment: Problem-Solving Simulation Answer the following questions in 100-200 words each: 0 How did you interpret the problem? o What strategy did you use and how did you evaluate your progress? o Did you encounter any obstacles while solving the problem? o Were you aware of this thought process as you worked through the problem? This was a very interesting puzzle.
It took a little less than 5 minutes to solve, UT I had to “think out of the box” in order to find a different way to solve the problem than in a linear fashion. Initially, I interpreted the question in a simple linear fashion. Take one animal. Then take the next animal. Then take the final animal. I would use logic to address the “Obvious solution. ” Simple or so I thought. So, what did was thought through the problem sequentially. If I took the dog across first, would be leaving the cat and the mouse alone on the right side of the riverbank. Clearly, that wouldn’t work since the cat would eat the mouse.
Therefore, I concluded correctly that I can’t take the dog across the ever first. Next, I also knew that I couldn’t take the mouse across the river first because then I would be leaving the dog and the cat on the right side of the river alone. That wouldn’t work since the dog would eat the cat. Therefore, I correctly knew that the cat must be the first animal across the river. However, at this point, things got tough. Nothing after this point worked for me. If took the dog next, and left to go back across the river to get the mouse, lid be leaving the dog and the cat alone on the left side of the riverbank.