Anthropology: The Study of Humankind essay

Capitalism Economic system that is dominant in Western culture. Elements of capitalism include private ownership of the means of production, creation of goods or services for profit or income, the accumulation of capital, competitive markets, voluntary exchange and wage labor. Cultural homogeneities Medical anthropology Study of the human experience with disease (and healing systems) in cross-cultural perspective Teeth medicine Health systems that exist in different cultures.

Includes everything from: perception and classification of illness to diagnosis and prevention to healing. Also includes anthropology of the body and focus on globalization and health Folk/popular medicine sass referred to monoester medical systems, usually thought of as ‘folk” or “popular” medicine Anthropology of the body -Cross-cultural variation in definitions of the body and relationship to illness and healing -In Euro-American scientific popular and scientific thought = division of mind and body Disease A biological pathology that is objective and universal. Ethic) In the disease -illness dichotomy, a biological, a biological health problem that is objective and universal. Illness culturally specific understandings and experiences of health problems and other forms of suffering (mimic) In the disease illness dichotomy, culturally shaped perceptions and experiences of a health problem. Structural suffering -Human health problems caused by such economic and political factors as war, famine, terrorism, forced migration, and poverty. Affect health in different ways, from depression to death -Western disease classifications do not account for structural suffering Oncology A branch of medicine that deals with the classification of diseases. Gusto Fright/shock disease, a culture specific illness found in Spain and Portugal among Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, tiger, weakness, and lack of appetite.

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Culture-Bound Syndromes -A collection of signs and symptoms that is restricted to a particular culture or a limited number of cultures -Usually caused by psychosocial experiences such as stress or shock; no apparent biological cause *Toto *American Phobias Bulimia Culture-bound syndrome found mainly among white middle class adolescent girls of the united states, related to anorexia nervous. Anorexia Culture-bound syndrome found mainly among white middle class adolescent girls of the united States.

Symptoms include self-perception of fatness, version to food, hyperactivity, and the condition progresses, continued wasting of the body and then death. Diagnosis The act or art of identifying a disease from its signs or symptoms. Divination Illness causation theories -New contexts for contagion and exposure -Increased international travel/migration (TAB, HIVE/AIDS, Malaria, west Nile Virus) -populations expansion into forest areas -overcrowding in cities Western biomedicine A healing approach based on modern western science that emphasizes technology in diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body.

Is a cultural system intimately mound to western values. Community healing Healing that emphasizes the social context as a key component and that is carried out within the public domain. Healers People in a certain culture recognized as having special abilities to diagnose and treat health problems. Some healing roles may have higher status and more power and may receive higher pay than others. (shamans, shaman us, herbalists, nurses, dentists, etc) Huh moral heal Eng systems Based on a philosophy of balance among certain elements within the body and within the person’s environment .

In this system food and drugs have different effects on he body and are classified as either “heating” or “cooling’. Ethnology is the study Of how people of a particular culture and region make of use of indigenous plants. Esophagi the practice of eating earthy or soil-like substances such as clay, and chalk. Is most often seen in tribal and rural societies among children and pregnant women, it is practiced by members Of all races, social classes, ages, and sexes. In some parts of the world, esophagi is a culturally sanctioned practice.

Ecological/epidemiological approach Examines how aspects of the natural environment interact with culture to cause health problems and to influence their spread throughout the population. Suffuses rights Colonialism and disease Globalization and disease Arrived medicine Interpretative approach Examining aspects of healing, such as ritual trance, as symbolic performances. Unnatural Causes (film) ……. Watch later Placebo effect A positive result from a healing method due to a symbolic or otherwise immaterial factor.

Critical medical anthropology Focuses on analyzing how structural factors, such as the global political economy, global media, and social inequality, affect the prevailing health yester including types of afflictions, people’s health status, and their access to health care. Metallization The labeling of a particular issue or problem as medical and requiring medical treatment when, in fact, the issue or problem is economic or political. Morbidity Sickness, that evidence indicates poverty is a primary cause of in both industrialized and developing countries.

Poverty and its synergy with disease Poverty creates a double bind: it both contributes to chronic conditions, and limits those who suffer from it access to healthcare. Cognitive retrogression A process in which medical dents relinquish critical thinking and thoughtful ways of learning. (usually in the first couple years of med school, memorization of facts, uncritical approach to learning) Demutualization A process where medical school training works to erase humanitarian ideals through an emphasis on technology and objectification of the patient.

Emerging and reemerging diseases New emerging health challenges. Since sass, emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease, HIVE and AIDS. Diseases of development A health problem caused or increased by economic development projects. *dams and irrigation systems cause increased dates of sadomasochists *obesity Sunray forest disease Medical pluralism -Refers to the presence of multiple health systems within a society. Pro: gives clients/patients multiple options with regard to diagnosis and treatment of health-related problems -Con: something may be classified as health problem in one system and not in the other World systems theory Clinical medical Identify the clinical manifestation of a disease. Application of anthropological knowledge to further the goals of health-care providers. World Health Organization Have endorsed the incorporation of traditional healing practices into national lath systems since 1978.

Traditional birth attendant -who is present when a woman is giving birth, different types of attendants have different roles in different cultures – For example among the Maya women in Mexico, the midwife is called I during the early stages Of labor to give a massage to the mother-to-be, she also provides psychological support by telling stories often about other women’s birthing experiences. – In the united states though hospital births are the norm Culture of poverty Person-centered ethnography Cultural broker Someone who is familiar with two cultures and can remote communication and understanding across them.

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