Primary Health Care essay

Those in conflict zones attempt to move to peaceful regions as refugees or asylum seekers. Under the 1951 UN convention and its 1 967 protocol an asylum seeker is a person from another neutron entering another country to claim safe haven (Stewart, 2011). According to Davies et al. (2009) people will seek asylum for different reasons that may include running away from political and social unrest, armed conflicts, harassment or they are mistreated in their motherland.

Refugees refers to a group of people who have been forced to live outside their country because they are afraid of being persecuted based on their race, nationality, political opinion, social membership, religion, and are therefore not assured of safety and protection by that country (Carmaker et al. , 2011). In Australia, asylum seekers describes any group of people who have applied for their refugee status but that status has not been determined or persons who have arrived in Australia with a temporary visa and have made an application for refugee Status, this persons may include students and tourists (Stewart, 201 1).

Australia receives most of its refugees and asylum seekers from regions that are experiencing humanitarian crisis which includes Lebanon, Vietnam, Africa, Middle East, post-war Europe and Asia (Russell et al. , 2013). As such, refugees and asylum seekers are one of the most vulnerable populations that face multiple healthcare and social needs and increasingly face health inequalities.

Additionally, this vulnerable group will comprise pregnant women, unaccompanied children, raped or tortured individuals, single men and women, and people with significant mental ill health. Russell et al. (2013) postulates that most of arriving refugees are below 30 years of age, have low socioeconomic status, have varied religious backgrounds, and speak little or no English. As result these makes there health care needs complex whether they are in the wider community or under immigration attention facilities.

Health Disparities Faced by Refugees and Asylum Seekers Healthcare and social welfare needs of refugees and asylum seekers can be seen to be complex and different from other Australian communities when it comes to accessing primary healthcare. Health disparities refers to any difference in the health status, including injury, violence, disease, that are preventable in regards to opportunities available to accessing optimal healthcare services that socially disadvantaged or vulnerable population experience (CDC, 2014).

According to Carmaker et al. (201 1) restriction of asylum seekers access to healthcare started with the sass implementation of the Australian policy of protection visa applicants and has since then increased. Though published government policies proclaim that it is fundamental to provide organized, culturally sensitive and accessible health services to refugees, there exist challenges that compromise the long-term wellbeing and health of refugees and asylum seekers. According to Russell et al. 2013) key among the greatest health challenges faced by refugees and asylum seekers is stress and depression that results from forced migration or settlement, discrimination, mistreatment and coercion. Davies et al-(2009) explains that health challenges that refugees face both when in their country and while on transit, results from different factors such as psychological and physical torture, trauma, lack of education, food and shelter, poor sanitation, lack of clean water, and poor access to healthcare.

Women refugee population face atrocities such as torture, rape, mutilation, coercion, sexual slavery or they may be denied liberty (Kay et al, 2010). Davidson et al (2004) reports that on-arrival refugees typically will be involved in poorly paying jobs, ran low income, are discriminated, and experience language or other communication barriers that affect access to optimal healthcare services.

It is also apparent that refugees and asylum seekers face common settlement challenges such as accessing affordable accommodation, writing and / or speaking English, finding employment, mothers gaining affordable child care, interpreting health information, understanding community and health services, dealing with the change in family Structures, separation from family, friends and community; these challenges have significant impact on their lath or access to health (Carmaker et al. 2011). According to Davidson et al (2004) one should remember that refugees or asylum seekers frequently suffer from trauma and stress as a recurring impact of their resettling experience and that some of the refugees may have been in refugee camps for prolonged period such that they may have suffered infectious diseases, developed malnutrition, been injured or just based on the horrible experience they have been subjected owing to activities undertaking in their country of origin.

Kay et al (2010) adds that it is factual that all refugees have undergone some kind of trauma or torture, some have been tortured and they often, owing to their condition and status, have poor access to healthcare. It is then certain that refugees and asylum are vulnerable population whose majority reach Australia already facing significant health difficulties which may require quick help or some may arrive with chronic diseases that will require sustainable health care interventions.

Due to the above mentioned challenges faced by refugees and asylum seeker, refugees and asylum seekers in Australia have health needs that differ from the wider population and according to Stewart (2011) this includes increased prevalence Of health conditions, obstetric complications, nutrition deficiency, particular infectious diseases and disability. A well planned healthcare intervention programmer is required to assist Australia to cope with such health challenges faced by refugees and asylum seekers.

Planned Intervention According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health promotion is a process of enabling people to have increase control and improve their health by focusing past individual behavior and including wide range of environmental and social interventions (WHO, Online). Health disparities that refugees and asylum seekers face also pose health risk to Australian communities, for example, possible breakout of highly infectious or communicable diseases.

As such, it is important to have a health promotion program that not only focuses on refugees and asylum seekers, but also involves policy makers, health service providers, community and health professional. Thus, developing a refugees and asylum seekers round table education program as the proposed health promotion program will allow interactive sessions; enable networking and sharing of information that is ITIL in improving access to health service for refugees and asylum seekers.

Australian refugees and asylum seekers create part of the Australian community and the purpose of health promotion is to build cultural and social understanding of diseases and health that can enable all people (including vulnerable population) have increased control over their health through advocacy and intersections action (Pedro, 2012). The role of health education intervention program, which is a component of health promotion, is to improve access to health services and information, thus giving refugees ND asylum seekers more control over their health and well-being (Carlisle, 2000).

Education intervention suits refugees and asylum seekers as vulnerable population because it not only deals how simple health facts are disseminated, but also delivers important skills and information to people about preventing diseases or illness (Pedro, 2012). Apparently, an education program focused only on refugees and asylum seeker will not do significant improvement of health services. According to Whitehead (1992) health promotion involves people (vulnerable/non-vulnerable) as a whole, featuring here day to day life and is not focused only on risky groups of people.

Having a round table education program that involves diverse communities is seen to have profound effect by being representative of local authorities/policy makers, health providers and professionals, supportive communities and the vulnerable population. As Pharaoh (2014) puts it health promotion requires action on health determinants and as such cooperation of all sectors, those in and without health discipline, is required to represent the diversity of conditions that affect health.

Conditions that influence health includes basics eke information and life skills, giving people opportunities to make their health choices with regards to services and facilities, existence of supportive environment, and economic , social and cultural environments, physical conditions (WHO, 1984). The round table education concept pursues an inclusion approach and is projected from the understanding that health promotion is a diverse approach that comprises of education, communication, legislation, community development, economic measures, and other local activities that are touching on health hazards (Feldman, 2006).

It insists on the idea of the community working together in order to assassinate information about health and healthcare services and owning the initiatives so that it helps to forge partnership with local health authorities, community, health professional and, refugees and asylum seekers. Health education will ensure people have access to updated and relevant information that is important for them to make informed choices and decisions regarding health needs (Carlisle, 2000).

The proposed education program can therefore be crucial in combating the identified health disparities by making health services and information available and help improve health literacy in attempt of combating diseases. In 201 2, refugee and asylum seeker health in rural and regional areas health promotion program was conducted as a round table discussion with the aim of identifying common concerns, joint priorities and opportunities for strategic collaboration (Victorian Refugee Health Network (VERN), 2012).

The roundtable discussion came up with possible areas for collaborations and innovations in refugee and asylum seekers health in rural and regional areas and indicated how government policy direction, local collaboration and service development can support health services to refugees and asylum seekers (VERN, 2012). However, it did not document a framework of achieving that neither did it involve the refugees and asylum seekers as parties but involved organizations that deal with them.

Another health promotion was conducted on 201 1 outer east of Melbourne termed ‘a healthy mother, healthy babies’ and focused on pregnancy and post birth experience of women from refugee background (Nicola, 2011). The study aimed to ease the burden of chronic diseases by emphasizing on maternal risk behaviors and provide support to pregnant women. The program achieved key recommendations through a research on appropriate model of making revise effective and accessible in order to meet antenatal as well as postnatal needs of the refugee population in the study (Refugee Health Network, 2014).

However, Pastor et al. (2013) argues that the recommendations have not been fully effective as either the target population are not aware of the information or do not meet the criteria to access the services. Background to Project Australia is increasingly becoming more culturally diverse community, thus creating the necessity of having equitable and fair healthcare services for all.

A round table education program provides an integral community approach hat stimulates and builds positive relations beјen the refugee and asylum seekers and the Australian community including the refugee and asylum seeker’s agencies and health professional bodies. The project recognizes the importance of involvement and collective participation through education and training to improve health and human services as well as address the basic health service need of refugees and asylum seekers.

The project believes that such an approach is based on focusing on major social determinants of health which include social relationships, education, justice ND safety (Kind & Standard, 2003). As a health promotion program the round table education program centers its approach on access to health to reduce inequalities that refugees and asylum seekers experience in Australia. The activity focuses on effective and concrete public participation in developing life skills for refugee and asylum seekers as a principle of primary health care (Brakeman, 2003).

Information and education are considered as the key factors that will influence the target population to have an informed base for making choices. Information and education in health promotion help o increase knowledge and disseminate information that relates to health and therefore may empower refugees on how to deal with their heath needs. Aims and Objectives The aims of this project is to educate and train refugees and asylum seekers about accessing health services in Australia and improve Australian community understanding and perceptions of health needs of refugee and asylum seekers.

The project objectives are: To inform and educate refugee / asylum seekers how to seek or access health services To promote collective effort to attain health by improving repressions and public perceptions of refugee and asylum seekers health needs To contribute to development of health promotional policies that embrace exchange of ideas, both lay and professional To promote social behavior changes that is conducive to health living through coping strategies. References Brakeman, P. A. (2003).

P essay

Councils children’s services and his mother Tracey Connelly, his step-father Steven Barker and his step-fathers brother Jason Owen were all convicted of ‘causing or allowing a child’s death’ (Cross-referenced from Unit 10, task 1). Abraham Moscow (1908-1970) was a humanistic psychologist who (1954) developed a hierarchy of complex human needs (1954) that an individual must satisfy in a process called self-fulfillment- satisfaction of all needs results in self-actualization. The hierarchy was divided into seven tiers and when each set of needs were satisfied, the individual would move up another level o fulfill more needs.

Physiological needs like food and water are essential for survival. If those most basic needs are being neglected, the individual will instinctively focus everything on meeting those needs first. Once satisfied, safety needs like warmth and shelter also become important. After the safety needs have been met, social needs including love and a sense of belonging become important. When those have been satisfied, esteem needs must be satisfied. Cognitive needs must be satisfied before aesthetic needs including beauty and symmetry can be satisfied.

Only when all of the needs in the research have been satisfied, can an individual finally realism and reach their full potential through the process of self-actualization (Hayes, 2000) (cross- referenced from Unit 7, task 1). Measles first stage refers to basic biological and physiological needs, it includes thing like food, drink, shelter, warmth, and sleep and it can be argued that Baby p didn’t even have those needs met. The reason that it was imperative for Baby Up’s needs to be met at this stage was that without food, drink and warmth, people can only act instinctively.

There were reports of Baby P being malnourished although it is difficult to determine. Baby P did have shelter in the most simple of terms, although disagree with this because a shelter is meant to be a place of safety where no harm will come; that wasn’t the case for Baby Peter. Baby Peter couldn’t move onto the safety needs stage, but if he would have had a constant supply of food, sleep, warmth and shelter he would have been able to move up a stage. Baby Peter didn’t move onto the Stage of safety needs where protection, security, law, and freedom from fear.

This was because he wasn’t protected from his abusers by his family or society. A doctor didn’t notice a broken spine, or raised, social worker did notice bruises but no action was taken to protect him, and all attempts to question his mother proved futile. Baby Peter could have met those needs in a number of ways with or without abuse, this is because if he was taken into care by social services he would have been protected and in turn all the needs from Mason’s first stage would have been met by the Local Authority.

Mason’s third stage refers to social needs and the instinct to crave love, attention and have a sense of belongingness from family and later in like colleagues. Baby Peter did have a family but there was o mention of weather she showed him low and affection, although it can be argued that without protection and shelter, he couldn’t have felt a sense of love and affection. To meet the third stage, Baby Peter would have had to have felt loved and a sense of belonging.

It is difficult to determine how in his situation he would have met this need because not all children in care or foster families feel a sense of love and belonging- but at his age it is unlikely that love would have needed to come from family, so successful interventions could have helped him meet this stage Mason’s fourth stage, esteem needs, offers to the need for a sense Of achievement, independence, Status and responsibility. Baby Peter didn’t meet this stage because he wasn’t yet old enough to feel achievement, responsibly and status.

Arguably, baby peter could have been independent if he wasn’t abused. Simple things like walking and being able to feed himself would be classed as independence, but his independence was taken away from him when he broke his spine because he couldn’t do things like walk which made him independent. Later in life, Baby Peter would have been able to meet this stage through things like creating his win family, starting school and little aspects of freedoms in childhood like being able to go to the shop on his own the first time. This would have given him a sense of achievement and independence.

Working through this stage builds self-esteem and worth and eventually the final stage, self-actualization, occurs on its own. According to the main principles of Measles hierarchy, Baby Peter would have moved into self-actualization where personal growth and fulfillment takes place, but Moscow noted that very few people actually get to that stage because not enough people see their potential to meet it- it is often governed weather somebody will meet this stage when they finish secondary school and meet their ‘true’ potential.

To meet this stage Baby peter would have had to of met all of Measles other stages and go through a process of refection and growth in his life. There are a number of processes involved in the initiation integration and concluding a helping relationship and it is important that things like ethical considerations and referrals are taken into account. Ethical concerns in a counseling relationship can range from the need to disclose information and professional boundaries. It is important that the client is shown a level Of respect and decisions are left down to them without any interferences or disapproval.

It is also important that client’s autonomy is respected and they are not deceived into any other forms of support on the basis of ‘they need it’. When in a helping relationship the relationship needs to be ethical and have appropriate boundaries that both the professional and the client adhere to. In a helping relationship it is important that the client does not enter a non-professional relationship and it is the professionals job to make sure that the relationship would stand up to scrutiny.

This would be overstepping the boundary for the professional. Because of the sensitive nature of helping relationship the client is regularly in a very vulnerable position, it is important that the professional recognizes this and does not take advantage of the client when they are vulnerable and that includes confidentiality. Skilled helpers and counselors should never get into an argument with a client as it can be disastrous for their recovery/ care. All helpers should demonstrate professionalism, warmth and empathy.

It is also very important that the counselor recognizes when they can no longer alp the individual effectively and the individual is referred on to someone who is better trained In caring for their individual. A skilled helper should never try to work above their limitations or provide a service they are not qualified to provide. Communicating limitations of the helping relationship is another aspect to consider when initiating contact and beginning a working relationship because it allows the client to understand that they may need to seek support in another place.

And it lets them know what to expect in terms of what the support is for and what can and can’t be done, a skilled helper irking above their limitations as acting as a barrier to another service. Equal opportunities in a counseling relationship is important because it is part of the care value base and the law. Equal opportunities refers to allowing all service users the same chances to do things, even if it means putting extra support in place to give them the same opportunities (e. G. A ramp). Treating all clients the same is not equal opportunities and can actually lead to some clients not having the same opportunities.

By providing equal opportunities it enables all staff members and service users to feel safe and within a safe environment also ensuring no individual is or feels discriminated against. Before the start of any counseling session, the counselor needs to prepare their counseling room. The room should be comfortable temperature, make sure seating arrangements are appropriate and confrontational. The room should be an appropriate light and there should be no physical barriers between the helper and client (desks, high tables) to allow the helper to observe body language and facial expressions.

An atmosphere should be created that feels informal al relaxing, but professional at the same time. This s seen with ‘rape rooms’ for rape victims in police stations that are designed to be soothing and relax a victim. Background noises can put a stress on the environment because in silence, the client forgets about the outside world and doesn’t have to worry about other people. The arrangement Of first contact should focus on introductions and building a therapeutic relationship. This can be done by talking about things that are nothing to do with the intended purpose of the session for the first 5 minutes to build trust.

A client should be allowed to sit how they feel comfortable and the counselor should adjust their position appropriately. When introductions are over and the client feels comfortable initiating a contract that then begin. This is where terms are set up between the professional and the client so both parties understand how long the sessions are going to go on for and what is going to be gained from the sessions and the limitations of the session. This protects both parties and also helps in developing boundaries and the client should be told ay costs they may incur.

Confidentiality is one of the most important parts of a counseling relationship because if it is ever compromised, building new sense of trust is unlikely. The helper should make it clear that they will only break confidentiality if they are at risk of harm or other people are at risk of significant harm. When breaking confidentiality, the helper should have a second opinion. The counselor should start to build an empathetic relationship, where they don’t condescend their client by being sympathetic.

The client should constantly be supported and should never be pushed by the helper So they can go at their own speed. A skilled helper should always put support in place for the client and should never appear dismissive or unsupported. Early referrals are part of this process and they can be used to move a client into another service just before they need it, so the sessions are never ineffectual or unproductive. The client should always be consulted about an early referral and they can be used to patch and potential gaps in support or provision.

Integrating and using a range of helping skills in a structured and coherent way means that no time is wasted in a session, putting the service user at the centre of their care. Using skills like empathy, communication, body language, and investigative skills can help a helper get ore information from a client in a way that isn’t detrimental to the relationship or that feels too pressured. It can be difficult for a helper to learn these skills and they often come with experience and vary with personality. When a session is ending, it is important that the helper provided unbiased and accurate information.

This extends the clients autonomy and puts them in control of their care so that they can make an informed decision about what to do next and promoting recovery and independence. Giving clients information that is unbiased means that they can reflect on their current progress and make a decision that suits them most. It can be difficult for a helper to learn how to explain something in a way that it isn’t biased when recommending or talking about other services because they need to bear in mind that everybody has different needs and services don’t suit everybody.

Referrals can be used by a helper when their service is no longer beneficial to the client and there are other services that are, or the client is interested in. This is part Of the helper accepting their limitations or striving to put the best support in place. A client should always be told exactly where they are being referred to, whom, what information will be passed on and how long it will aka. A helper should then look at what support the client will be receiving in the time between the referral and provide and necessary support.

Describing Unique selling essay

Explaining three factors responsible for the increasing importance of business intelligence in organizations b. Elaborating any two divisions of benefits from business intelligence 2 Roles and responsibilities must be well defined in any organizations to perform well. The effectiveness of business intelligence teams can be improved to a greater extent when the roles and responsibilities are well defined within the organization. A. What are the reasons that bring confusion in the roles and responsibilities in business intelligence teams? B.

Explain the different roles in a programmer team. A. Listing the three reasons that bring confusion in the roles and responsibility in Bal team b. Listing the six different roles in a programmer team Explaining 6 different types of roles in a programmer team 3 Critically analyses the risks involved in data mining. Explaining the five potential risks of data mining 4 a. What are Business intelligence tools? B. Differentiate between tools supporting insight creation capability and those supporting presentation capability a. Describing the meaning of business intelligence tools b.

Differentiating the four tools according to their capabilities 5 Market research is a sign efficient element of marketing since it is responsible for studying the customer and fulfilling their needs. Explain Market Models based on the concept of Business intelligence. Explaining any up’s from the up’s model of marketing/service marketing mix Describing Unique selling Proposition model Describing Brand positioning 6 Explore the benefits of cloud computing

Explain the importance Of organisational communication essay

Why is it necessary? Explain the types of manpower forecasting. Meaning of manpower planning Necessity of forecasting Explanation of the types of manpower forecasting 3 The latest trend in recruitment is the ‘E-Recruitment. Write a brief note on this ‘E-recruitment’ Meaning and example of e-recruitment Kinds of e-recruitment Online recruitment techniques Advantages and disadvantages 4 Explain the necessity and types of induction. Necessity of induction Types of induction 5 Define talent engagement.

Why is it important? What are the driving factors of talent engagement? Definition of talent engagement Importance of talent engagement Driving factors of talent engagement Many organizations closely observe the employee exits and are managing the exit process professionally in order to reduce the employee turnover. Describe such employee exit process and operational responsibilities. Differentiate between exit surveys and exit interviews.

Explanation of employee exit process Operational responsibilities in exit process Difference between exit surveys and exit interviews MONO 1 – Management and Organizational Development 1 Define Organizational development. What are the assumptions of Organizational Development? Definition of ODD Assumptions of ODD Describe the following theories of planned change: ‘Linen’s change model’ and ‘Action research model’ Linen’s change model Action research model 3 Describe the components of ODD programs and the ODD program phase.

Components of ODD programs ODD program phase 4 What are the ethical dilemmas in practicing ODD? Meaning of Ethical dilemma Explanation of various ethical dilemmas 5 Define the term downsizing. List the types of downsizing. Explain the significance, misconceptions and effects of downsizing. Definition of downsizing Listing the types of downsizing Significance of downsizing Misconceptions Effects Of downsizing 6 Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts.

Describe the seven steps of initiating such ‘organizational learning’. Explanation of the seven steps of initiating ‘organizational learning. MICRO 2 ? Employee Relations Management 1 Employee relations management (ERM) is all about management of relationship with employees in an organization. Explain the features and importance of ERM. Features of ERM Importance of ERM 2 What are the various types Of communication? Explain the importance Of organizational communication. What are the methods to improve communication?

Types of communication Importance of organizational communication Methods to improve communication 3 Human Resource Information System (HAIRS) helps organizations to carry out their HER administrative functions in an effective manner. What are the important features that makes a good HAIRS? Mention some common applications of BRISK. Important features that makes a good HAIRS Common applications of HAIRS 4 What are the objectives of organizational discipline? List the types of capillary problems. Explain the steps of disciplinary procedures commonly followed in many organizations.

Objectives of organizational discipline Listing the types Of disciplinary problems Explain the steps of disciplinary procedures 5 What is trade union and what are its objectives? Describe trade unions in India. Meaning of trade union Objectives of trade union Trade Unions in India 6 Write a brief note on the following Acts: (I) Factories Act, 1948 (lie) Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 Concept and provisions of Factories Act, 1948 Concept and provisions under Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 -HER Audit 1 Define Human Resource (HER) Audit. Explain the need for HER Audit.

What are the benefits of HER Audit? Definition of HER Audit Need for HER Audit Benefits of HER Audit 2 Write short notes on: (I) Audit of HER Planning (ii) Audit of Industrial Relations (I) Meaning and role of Audit of HER Planning (ii) Meaning and role of Audit of Industrial Relations 3 What is HER Scorecard? Explain the reasons for implementing HER Scorecard framework. Meaning of HER Scorecard Reasons for implementing HER Scorecard framework. 4 What is meant by ‘Competency mapping? Explain the various competencies ND the associated behavioral aspects.

The Mice That Set Elephants Free essay

Spot’s purpose of telling them this story is to show them that they do not need to be big to be friends with him. Even someone very tiny, like those mice, can help out In a huge way or matter if they all get together and try. Spot parallels this story because he is using the mice to get out of captivity in his own way as he wants to stay with him so he does not have to go back to the people who happen to own him. 5.

Spot, Swift, and Slow, all of those characters, exhibit the ability to elk which, of course, is only a human amenity. They also can understand concepts such as fear, which is shown when Spot shows up so Swift, Slow, and Gold all run. They also have human reason, which shows up when they understand that it does not seem rational for a small, little animal to be friends with a very large one like Spot. 7. It can be learned to just be friends with everyone, even if it does not seem like they are much to kick at first.

They can probably end up being one of the best friends you can ask for. It also shows that you should always go something good, because something good might come back to you in the end. It lastly shows that you should not go into a friendship expecting anything at all. You will be sorely disappointed because nobody will just do something for you without showing you can repay the favor or be grateful. 8. It adds the message that no matter who you are, no matter your size, looks, where you come from, etc. , that you can really do something great.

Even if you are as small as a mouse, you could make the name impact an elephant could if you are truly willing and able. Size is not what matters, what matters is what you are able to do with your heart. 9. The lesson portrays the idea that even if you where you end up is not that great, if you are with great people it will make it good. This can also go vice versa too as a person can be in the greatest place ever, but if you’re not with good people, it makes the place bad. In a sense, even Hell is bearable if you are there with the right people.

Distinguished between applied and research essay

1. Distinguished between applied and research. According to the text Research Method for Generalist Social Work it stated , for generalist social workers, research problems or questions usually are determined by their agencies; these questions are directed at solving problem arise in practice and are intended to produce practical outcomes. This type of research is known as applied research. When research is instead aimed at satisfying our intellectual curiosity, even if the results eventually will be applied to help solve practice problems, it is known as pure research.

If the extinction between pure and applied research seem difficult to understand, some would argue that is because the distinction does not really exist in social work. Social work is an applied field, so any questions related to social work in any way will be some type of applied question. Also Note that research questions are constantly under review and can change at any time given the availability of new knowledge or new resource. 2. Describe the three types of questions that are asked in generalist practice social work practice.

The text states that the three types of questions asked are Practice Evaluations, Program Evaluations and Needs Assessments. These questions evaluate the effectiveness of individual practice and are known as practice revaluation. Stated in the text an example of practice evaluation, is How effective is the grief counseling I am providing to Mrs.. Garcia in helping her to cope with the death of her husband? This question is trying to prove if it is true or not. It is recognized as an integral element of social work. Aerogram evaluation evaluates the effectiveness of a program. This type of question relates directly to the generalist social worker function of promoting the effective and humane operation of the systems that provide resources. An example question is How effective is the Change for families program in providing services that support and protect victims of domestic violence? A Need assessment question describe the extent of a social program. An example of a need assessment question is what are the needs of adolescent fathers in Sacramento?

Generally a quantitative approach is used for a needs assessment, since most need assessment are concerned with generalization of results rather than in depth understanding how people experience social robbers. (Marrow, 2011) 3. Discuss the three types of research strategies. The three types of research strategies are the strategies the determined by three factors, the intent or goal of research, the amount of information we already have on the topic to be investigated and the intended audience. (Marrow, 201 1) The main strategies are descriptive, explanatory, and exploratory.

Descriptive research describes, records, and report phenomena. Descriptive research can provide important fundamental information for establishing and developing social programs he explanatory research aims at roving explanations of events to identify causes rather than simply describing phenomena. (Marrow, 2011) Explanatory research requires the formulation of a hypothesis, which is simply a statement about the relationship between certain factors. Explanatory research is found in the social work literature, and as generalist practitioners, you may be directly involved in such results.

The Exploratory research deserves mention (Marrow, 201 1) this strategy is undertaken when little is known about the topic under study. Such studies can adopt either descriptive or an explanatory strategy. Qualitative or quantitative is appropriate with exploratory research. Exploratory research often determines a study s feasibility and raises questions to be investigated by more extensive studies using either the descriptive or the explanatory strategies. Descriptive, explanatory, and exploratory are the three types of research strategies. 4.

Discuss the ethical issues in deciding the research questions. According to the text, two ethical issues are center stage in research process concerned with deciding On the question. The question applicability to social work practice and the availability f funding. (Marrow, 2011) One concern when you are deciding on research question is whether and how the answer to the question is going to contribute to the field of social work. Usually, applicability to practice is not too much an issue for generalist social workers, because most questions derive directly from our practice in an agency. Marrow, 201 1) If your question has evolved from your personal experiences, you must ask whether answering the question is really going to assist the clients you serve. (Marrow, 201 1) This issue presents another reason for adopting more participatory action research, it is rooted directly in clients concerns, and they become active contributors. The other issue is availability of resources, in agencies research projects may be conducted because funding is available for these projects. Certain issues may be a priority at the local, state, or federal level, and funds consequently become available.

You should be aware of the reason you are conducting research on these issues, namely, at least in part, the availability of funds. ( Marrow, 2011) In addition, you may sometimes want to confirm for yourself whether a research program deserves an investment f time and money. The best source for this type of information is the literature and colleagues. (Marrow, 2011) 5. Discuss human diversity issues in deciding research questions. Human diversity issues in deciding research question you should be aware of the researchers characteristics can influence their research and that agencies may promote biases.

According to the text, it is important to note that the problem of “researcher identity bias” can still exist. (Marrow, 2011) Although socioeconomic Status is interrelated to other aspects of diversity, particular race/ethnicity, almost certainty the researcher ill be well educated and middle class and the participants more likely to be poorer and less educated, introducing a whole set of socioeconomic values. (Marrow, 201 1) One strategy for addressing this issue is for the researcher to undertake a participatory approach.

Although the input and participation of organization members are essential, these evaluations do need to be counterbalanced by outsiders’ evaluations. (Marrow, 201 1) Chapter 4 Writing the Literature Review and Identifying Variables 6. What is the Literature Review? Literature Review is defined as consulting with written material relevant to a search problem. This written material can be found in a variety of places including libraries, public and private; city, state, and federal buildings; social agencies, private collections; and political, professional, social, and interest group organizations such as NASA. Marrow, 2011) The literature review assist with developing the questions in the following ways such as connecting the research question to theory, identifying previous research and given direction to the research project. 7. What are some ways to access information for the Literature Review? According to the text, Academic braises have traditionally provided research literature and tools for research, including indexes and abstracts. (Marrow, 201 1) Library sites or their OPAC are often important links to much more than print. Many Catalogs provide advanced search features permitting terms to be combined. . What are the difference between independent and dependent variable? The independent variable and the dependent variable are of primary concern in an explanatory study where specific variables are identified as contributing to specific outcomes,in other words,the stud attempts to establish causality. The independent variable is the variable that can affect other factors in research. Len a program evaluation,the independent variable is the program itself-The dependent variable as the outcome variable that has presumed Ben affected by the independent variable. N a summarize program evaluation where you are interested in whether a program goals are been met,the dependent variable would be those goals. 9. List and name the levels of measurements in research The levels of measurement in research are the extent to which a variable can be quantified and subsequently subjected to certain mathematical or tactical procedures. The Nominal level of measurement is defined as ,Data are assigned to categories based on similarity or difference. The Ordinal is defined as Data are sequenced in some order.

The Interval is Data are sequenced in some order,and the distances between the different points are equal-Last the Ratio which is Data are sequenced in some order,the distances between the different points are equal,and each value reflects an absolute magnitude. The zero point reflects an absence of the value. Chapter 13 Research Writing 10. What is a research proposal? Research Proposal is defined as a paper proposing the undertaking of a specific type of research. This is often necessary to obtain permission and funds to conduct the study.

Writing the proposal can also directly assist the researcher in conceptualizing the research. By systematically thinking through each step of the research process,as is required in the research proposal,the research can gain insights and clarification regarding the research 2011) 1 1 List the components of the research proposal The components in the proposal are statements of the research epic,literature review,research questions and hypotheses,research designs,sampling strategy,data collection,data analysis,presentation of results,administration and budget,and credentials of the researcher and other relevant personnel.

Taking theses conditions into consideration,generally a standard outline for writing research proposals. 12. Discuss the ethnically issues in research writing. The ethnically issues in research writing are Confidentiality of the results,just as confidentiality needs to been ensured during data collection phrase,it also needs to be preserved in research. Subjects identities should nit be disclosed without permission.

The NASA Code of Ethics States the Social workers engage in the evaluation of services should discuss collected information only for professional purposes and only with people professionally concerned with this information,Another related issue is Referencing Appropriately,whenever research is being planned and conducted,it is imperative that you consult other work that has been completed in the target area(C. Marrow 2011 )Make sure to recognize others contributions to avoid plagiarism.

Solving My People problem essay

This student-author found the resources to be satisfactorily in answering the three questions in the first art of solving his people puzzles: 1) Who is the Me I See; 2) What Hallmark Purpose will govern your relational style; and 3) Who is the Me want to See? The research that was conducted will be used as continuing tool for understanding and growth in this students longing to grow in relational matters. CONTENTS Abstract 2 Part One Data 360 Interview response 4 The Interpersonal Communication Skills Test SnapShot 8 Solve My People Puzzle Part One Questions ћ GRADING RUBRIC 19 Part One Data .. 5 REFERENCES 17 This writer used three assessments to examine the assignment’s questions: 60 Interview surveys (PACE 500 stele, 201 3); Interpersonal communication Skills Test (Psychotics. Com, 201 3); and the Professional/Leadership DISC profile (Uniquely You Inc. , 2013). Data results are presented in snapshot form to facilitate review. Three questions asked for data integration in order to describe and develop a picture of one’s relational style: 1) Who is the “Me I See”; 2) What Hallmark Purpose will govern your relational style; and 3) Who is the “Me I want to Se?’?

This assessment came from two people: Julius Season (Pastor), Marcus Johnson (Mentor). Their responses are color coordinated as: Season (green) ND Johnson (red). 1 . What would you tell [Ben Clayton] if [he] asked you the following question: “What is it like to be on the other side of mere E – That answer would be exciting. The reason why it is exciting is because of the joy, the enthusiasm, and the eagerness to serve that you are able to see and feel as this relatively young preacher moves with passion in his pathway of discovery within his ministry.

His wiliness to integrate himself in all aspects of this gospel ministry allows the Lord to test him and open him to all the areas that he can and will used to a greater service. J – It is a great inspiration o have you in my presence because having you in my presence makes me know that there are some things that I can automatically relax about! Know that any immediate and future concern that have that you will think of how it can be handled immediately or how it can be addressed in the future.

I know that if I need some protection from someone or something that I need or anybody around us need, you are going to do everything your power to provide the protection. Finally, I know that ministry, Scripture or sermon preparation will be the topic or topics of interest. 2. How does [Ben Clayton] typically interact with other people? Can you think of a recent example? E – Ben presents himself as being both open and available.

When we take in new members to the membership, immediately following the morning service Ben will go to that new member give them a copy of both his card and the pastor’s for contact purposes and let them know that we are both available to talk, to interact in fellowship, and spend time with them as they transition from a large worldly circle of friends to a spiritual gathering of brothers and sisters. Ben is a lover of basketball and plays often. Last Sunday evening following all services a new member who ad joined earlier that day contacted him about playing with Ben the next time he played.

Ben picked him up that evening, took him to the gym, introduced him to his fellow ball players and spent quality time with this young man. This allowed them to begin developing both trust and fellowship as this young saw that Ben’s interest was real and backed up with actions not just words. J – Those that are in-authority over him will be quizzed for information from him and those he is in-authority over he will add value to them. In addition, he adds value to those who are in authority as he brings meeting to the table.

For example: Ben could be trusted by his pastor, to lead the congregation while he had surgery and recovered. He added value to the congregation and was completely loyal to the pastor in his absence. 3. Have you ever been in a situation where you saw [den Clayton] take on new tasks or roles? Describe this situation and what [he] did? E Very shortly after Ben declared his calling to this gospel ministry, the pastor had surgery with extensive post-surgical complications. For months as our only available associate minister all of the preaching, teaching, visitations, and district association responsibilities fell to Ben.

He carried these added responsibilities with humility and with spiritual maturity far beyond his years in the ministry. He visited this pastor almost daily as he served the needs of our church and district communities. Now that I am recovering and able to assume many of my responsibilities, Ben continues to serve as directed with a servant’s heart and spirit. J – was privileged to sit on the ordination counsel when Ben was ordained as a deacon. I saw him as he preached his first sermon and was licensed as a minister. He allowed his pastor to be very unforgettable and confidence in his absence during his illness.

When I was asked as the denominational leader of the church where he filled in for his pastor to come in and preach, I observed that thing were in order for the pastor to continue his recovery without any interruption from Ben. 4. What has been a particularly demanding goal for [Ben Clayton] to achieve? E – What is the most difficult goal for Ben to achieve; that would be patience. Ben wants everyone to be saved and change their lives right now. He wants everyone to come to Sunday Day School Training and Bible Study, right now.

If he could make the changes in his life to be a more devoted servant to the Lord, why can’t everyone else see the need and answer the call. Time and growth in the ministry will help Ben to understand his value and work is to be a seed planter and a pathway pointer, the work of heart changing and life altering belongs to the Lord. J – Because of the intense way that Ben approaches tasks, roles and goals, such as: his Master’s degree, sermons and roles as an understudy pastor, it is particularly demanding for him to achieve patience to wait on his own opportunity to pastor his own congregation. . When you observe [Ben Clayton], which of the following pictures come to mind? E – Ben shares strengths with all the characters, but mostly with the Beaver and the Retriever. Ben had a strong military back ground with awesome responsibilities. He has brought the analytical, self-discipline, industrious, and organizational skill to play from his military life to live within his ministry. He is able to temper some of the weaknesses of the Beaver with the strengths of the Retriever. He is calm, easy going, dependable, diplomatic and humorous.

He is able to look into the center of things and work solutions which he presents with gentle tact and diplomacy. However there have been situations where a more firm hand is needed and given. In these cases what is considered critical by some can be considered as a strong hand by others. The greatest weaknesses can see are that Ben can sometimes be a little fearful and a worrier. When we face these issues they can be thrown back to the issue of patience. Not having enough time, or knowledge or the how to in order to achieve the goal set before him.

The things that do not believe that he shares with these critters are moody, self-centered revengeful, selfish, tinny, unmotivated, nor procrastinator. These are not characteristics I have been able to note in two years of observations. J – The Beaver comes to mind because of the strengths of the animal. However, the weaknesses are not necessarily what come to mind: negative, unsociable and revengeful, I do not know them to fit his personality. The Interpersonal Communication Skills Test Overall results (score 71) Overall ability to communicate effectively.

According to your score on this test, your communication skills are good. As you may know, interpersonal skills are the essence of social interaction; they lay a large role in the impression you make on others. You seem to have a fairly solid grasp of effective communication and put the theories into practice, but there is always room for improvement. All it takes is a little know-how and effort. Like most things in life, practice makes perfect – and you’re more than halfway there! Unsightliness (score 72) The ability to read others and understand things from their point of view.

Your results indicate that you are fairly adept at interpreting other people’s words and actions and seeing things from their perspective – although the rare misunderstanding may occur. Overall however, you seem to realize that empathy is an essential part of good interpersonal skills and therefore, will do your best to place yourself in other people’s shoes in order to better understand them. For the most part, you can sense what others are thinking, and will likely adjust your behavior accordingly if a person you’re conversing with seems confused or perhaps uncomfortable.

There may be the occasional time when you pay more attention to the message you’re sending rather than how it’s received. With some time and experience, you’ll likely be able to improve your insight even more. Verbal Expression (score 68) The ability to deliver a clear and concise message. According to your answers, you are quite proficient at getting your point across to others. You have a fairly solid grasp of how to convey a message so that people get the intended meaning.

You seem capable of explaining yourself clearly, and often use many of the techniques necessary for effectively conversing with others. You appear to be aware that controlling your emotions and adjusting your approach and choice of words according to your audience is essential to prevent misunderstandings. This makes it less likely that you’ll hurt or offend someone, which can occur often when you onto make the intent of your message clear. If you’d like to reach your full potential however, check out the tips in the advice section.

Assertiveness (score 60) Your willingness to express differing opinions and to stand up for yourself. Your score indicates that you are fairly assertive when dealing with others and will rarely hesitate to express an opinion that strays somewhat from the norm. You seldom hold back from asking questions or discussing sensitive issues, even if it may result in an argument. This doesn’t mean that you don’t exercise tact; it’s possible to stand up for yourself without being aggressive. It is also likely that you are fairly capable of talking to people who appear intimidating.

This is typically a good sign, because the root of assertiveness is found in self-esteem. In a nutshell, you know that the only way to communicate in a genuine, effective Way is to voice what you’re thinking or feeling, even when it may “rock the boat” slightly. Since your score was high but not at the very top, however, there is still some room for improvement. Go that extra mile! Listening Skills (score 84) understanding of the rules of “listening etiquette” and the ability to actively attend to others. You had an excellent score on the listening skills component of this test.

This means that you have a very good understanding of what active listening involves, and you actually put that knowledge to use in your interactions with others. Many people wrongfully believe that listening is a passive activity, one that consists of simply absorbing what the other person says. You realize that in fact, attending to others is an active process. It involves making an effort to stay attentive even when the conversation is boring, letting others speak without interrupting and suppressing distracting mannerisms.

Keep up the great work – you’re certainly reaping the benefits! Emotional Management (score 60) The ability and willingness to deal with your own, as well as other people’s, emotions. It appears as though you are fairly capable of handling the emotional part of the communication process. Essentially, you don’t mind feeling a bit vulnerable, which is what this skill ultimately requires. You’re fairly comfortable expressing dealing with emotionally-charged situations; when confronted with a sensitive issue, you rarely avoid discussing it.

You are generally at ease discussing the issue Of feelings in a conversation, and rarely mind yourself at a loss for words when it comes to talking about your emotions or responding to someone else. As you probably know, keeping feelings hidden or avoiding them can be very frustrating not just for others but for you as well. This ability to manage emotions has likely served you well, making for smoother communication in your relationships with friends, colleagues and family. There’s still a little room for improvement though, so keep working on it.

Strengths You have excellent listening skills Potential strengths You have average communication skills You are somewhat insightful You are relatively capable of communicating clearly to others You are somewhat assertive when you talk to others You are relatively comfortable dealing with emotions imitations No limitations were detected Snapshots of DISC Graph “This is expected of me” is your response to how you think people expect you to behave. It’s your normal guarded and masked behavior. Description: As an “S” type, you think people expect you to be more sensitive and submissive.

You like blending in with the crowd because you feel that others want you to be still and quiet. You can be very loyal and friendly on an individual basis. You act like people want you to be more withdrawn and reserved in public. You often think you need to serve humanity and do what you are told, rather than challenge others and do what you want to do. Your humble spirit and quiet demeanor makes you well-liked. You are not very outwardly friendly, but you have many friends. People like you because you are not overbearing or confrontational. You think others want you to be pleasing and easy-going.

S – STEADY SPECIALISTS s 10 7 23 3 Discovering Your Behavioral Blends “G’s” are stable and shy types. They do not like changes. They enjoy pleasing people and can consistently do the same job. Secure, non-threatening surroundings are important to them. They make the best friends because they are so forgiving. Other people sometimes take advantage of them. They need to be stronger and learn how to say “No” to a friend who wants them to do wrong. Talking in front of large crowds is difficult for them. They are motivated by sweet and sincere opportunities to help others.

Controlling Your Behavioral Blends Increase your confidence. Fear not. Speak out more often. Be outgoing and less inhibited. Be assertive. Don’t be insecure. This is me Graphs: This is me” is your response to how you feel and think under pressure – how you really feel and think inside. It’s your normal unguarded and unmasked behavior. Description: As either a high “l / S/ C,” or “l / C / S,” or “S/ C/ I,” or “S / I / C,” or “C / / S,” or “C / S/ l” personality type, you tend to be more passive than active. You also have strong people skills.

You can be both outgoing and reserved. You can be the life of the party or a quiet spectator. You generally like to influence and interact with people, but you can also withdraw and concentrate on specific projects. People tend to like your friendliness, enthusiasm, and cordiality. You may rub Some people the wrong way with your critical and faultfinding attitude. You are not pushy or controlling unless people try to get you to do things that go against your plans or beliefs. You don’t have to be in charge. You prefer peace and harmony, as well as organized environments.

People like your multifaceted flexibility, but sometimes would like for you to be more decisive and direct. C/I/S – COMPETENT INFLUENCING SPECIALISTS D c 13 16 21 17 “C/I/G’s” like to do things right, impress others and stabilize situations. They are not aggressive or pushy people. They enjoy large and small crowds. They are good with people and prefer quality. They are sensitive to what others think about them and their work. They need to be more determined and dominant. They can do things well, but are poor at quick decision-making.

Research Paper Electronic Commerce essay

E-commerce has changed the way goods and services are exchanged and have given light to genuineness and consumers to exist on a global scale without an established brand. With e-commerce defined, let us look at its origin. Commerce Origin E-commerce has origins that trace back to the mid sass. In these times very few organizations had access to the very expensive electronic data interchange (History of E-Commerce, n. D. ). The information that was shared over this network gave birth to a new way for business communications and overall global reach.

As the years rolled by, advances in communication technology coincided with business transactions as electronic commerce started to take form. The early sass saw the creation of communication networks for computers. Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was introduced during this time and revolutionized the way information was shared and sourced in business (History of E-commerce, n. D. ). This technology was seen in places like Germany and France where the use of phone lines and national broadcast mediums were used (Fletcher, 2002, p. 04). As an initial Business-to-Business (BIB) concept, this communication network had become very popular among household telephone subscribers and was offered as a free service with a subscription Fletcher, 2002, p. 104). U. S. Based Bell telephone companies tried this videotape technology as well but was unsuccessful in its implementation. Minute, based in France had become one of the most prominent pre internet interfaces for telephone users.

Minute was very successful in country but the immersion of what is known today as the internet. The 1 sass is where e- commerce really found its wings and began to soar. Sir Tim Burners-Lee had been working with computer code and developed a system to share information across a network efficiently (Demanding, 2011). This network roved to be the kick start to a more global approach to communication and business relations. This movement coincided with the emergence of computer availability In businesses and households around the world.

Now as businesses connect with other businesses and consumers over a cyber space, the opportunity to impact communities and nations on an economic global scale had become a little easier. E-commerce had officially taken off and businesses were taking advantage. Business to Business E-commerce Businesses plunged into commercial transitions with one another the rough this new enјark. Business to business e-commerce is simply e-commerce between businesses. The complexity in business to business e-commerce stems from the natural realm of general business practices.

The ability to link value chain activities between suppliers and other business customers presents a considerable amount of competitive advantage (Lee, Lee, & pack, 2003, p. 1). This advantage involves speed, efficiency, and tracking in the shipping process for goods and prompt communication regarding services between company sees. The wholesale and retail markets have benefited greatly from the immediate access that each gain from electronic transitions. Lee, Lee and pack (2003) breaks business to business e-commerce down into two different types for adoption; basic and collaborative (p. ). Basic business to business e-commerce surrounds day to day business documents as they transfer between companies. These documents range from simple invoices to complex contracts that outline future business ventures. The automation in the movement of these documents optimized business to business relations and reallocated many of the hours that personnel used to develop and communicate these documents. To utilize business to business e-commerce outworks for this alone greatly undersells the ultimate capacity for this new technology.

Lee, Lee and Pack (2003) argue that this while this style of business to business e-commerce gains some benefit, the benefit attained is in no way significant (p. 2). Basic business to business e-commerce is driven by efficiency in the transmission of business but the true essence of business to business e-commerce lies in the collaborative aspect of the relationship. The beauty in this new found communication tool was not necessarily in the technological advancement but the matter in which businesses networked using the technological tool.

Now instead of just sending and receiving information from one business to the next, businesses are using the network to developed shared systems that monitors products and services that they share to To ensure both the supplier and seller have what they need to conduct business. The supplier has a system that allows then to see when levels are low for their seller and prepares shipments based on set inventory levels while the seller dictates when and where they receive items from their suppliers.

The access that is enabled from a collaborative business to business e-commerce system opens many competitive advantages in the racetrack as businesses competitive to be both faster and more reliable. This type of business to business e-commerce is preferred over basic e- commerce and is widely used today to expand business networks. Business to Consumer E-commerce Business to consumer e-commerce introduces a virtual storefront for consumers and offers online space for buying goods and services.

Businesses used the techniques they perfected in business to business transactions, along with global networks that they have established to reach consumers with products that are overall less expensive and more convenient for consumers. The costs that were associated with storefronts and sales associates were replaced with logistic cost that in most cases reduced the cost of goods sold for businesses. This option has become increasingly popular for the small business section, particularly businesses that are looking to expand.

The ability to reach an unlimited amount of customers in today’s technology filled market brings very lucrative opportunity to engage in business on a global scale. With the reduction in face-to-face contact, customer service and relationship management becomes that much more important. The ability to provide customers with a simple yet pleasant hopping experience to include dependable and reliability delivery Of goods and services, can propel a business from average to superior within their particular market.

This should not change with the utilization of self-service technology in things like kiosks and automatic teller machines (Atoms) as they aid in the delivery of business. (Johnson, 2001 , p. 662). While considerable time can be saved in the e-commerce arena, time should never be traded for delivering the services expected from the customer. In the e-commerce environment, proper customer relationship management can be a very useful tool in communicating the and interpreting customer satisfactions and concerns.

As transactions take place over the internet, user choices, activities, and experiences are being evaluated for future customer improvement efforts. Business websites can be constructed and engineered to accommodate the ever changing needs and interests of the customer. The issue, as pointed out by Irradiating (2008) is the lack of customer relationship management being used in today’s business world.

He discloses several advantages that stem from using customer relationship management which include; reduction of customer communication costs deduction of overhead from internet based self-service activities overall cost savings to include integrated delivery systems and production Increase sales through e-marketing (Burr, A. , Rolland, & Ward, 2007). Customer relationship management can only optimized when the technology and customer relationships are productive and positive (Irradiating, 2008, p. 1 In business to consumer e-commerce, technology will continue to drive the delivery system in which consumers connect and interact with businesses. The importance of managing the consumer base and establishing a lasting relationship will be paramount in the longevity the business. Consumer to Consumer e-commerce Perhaps the most innovative type of e-commerce, exist between consumers as they buy, sell, and trade goods and services through electronic mediums. Leonard and Jones (2010) stamped this segment as the fastest growing due to the popularity of the Internet (p. 186).

Auction sites like eBay have dominated this segment and most of the information regarding e-commerce for this segment has surrounded the auction transactions that take place but this segment has so much more to offer. As the internet has opened a market that eliminates the need for corporate businesses, store fronts, and sales preventatives, consumer to consumer e-commerce stands to be the most optimistic in the future. Websites like Scraggliest opens a community where consumers communicate and exchange goods and services without the need of a website designer, advertising costs, and maintenance fees.

Consumers create accounts and manage their ads as they explore items and services that they could use. Although this community in particular has garnered its share of criticism as skeptics site the dangers lurking behind each ad, it has been displayed that this type of electronic medium can sustain local economies ND even people through these financially tough times. Harvey (2012) recaps the documentary “Scraggliest Joe” as a 29 year old man lived entirely from the ads he placed on Scraggliest. Though the movie was not action packed, it displayed the type of environment that you rarely associate with internet communities(p. ). This proves that technology, contrary to popular believe, can bring people closer together. E-commerce is at its best in a network and while most businesses seek to save time, travel, and ultimately money, consumer to consumer e-commerce presents a forum, virtual meeting place in an attempt to bring them closer together. The surge of social media sites that have reconnected old friends and given families and the opportunity to experience things that they wouldn’t otherwise experience has cemented a marketplace where trends drive business.

Users share daily activities and while these sites can drive commerce between users,they also endorse brands, businesses and corporations with pictures, virtual “check-ins” and general knowledge. Johnson (2001) labels these sites under online communities and validates the lack of market research that has been done in this new and growing section of consumer to consumer e-commerce. Legal Environment of E-commerce The invention of the internet sparked an technological surgeons in the business world where electronic systems have been injected into almost every fastest of our lives.

The legal realm in which business is conducted via electronic mediums has taken some time to catch of with the boom of e- commerce. Laws, by nation, tend to develop and move at a slow pace. In the age of the internet, the legal environment has found it very difficult to keep pace with the ever changing world of e-commerce. Friend (1999) identifies one cause stating, “The fundamental differences here, indeed, are principally (a) technological and (b) spatial” (p. 6). Friend, 1999). Laws are built with borders in mind where as the Internet and the e-commerce environment exist In a virtual space.

There is not a government or agency from around the world that exist in a forum to dictate electronic commercial policies that would affect the global market. Many countries have been very cooperative in the pursuit of common e-commerce law but the shear reality lies in the fact that no governing body can control what each individual county does. For e- commerce it is important that the legal system understands the environment that it operates and adapts a technological approach to the resolution of sues that arise.

Measures have to be developed to not only counter criminal e-commerce activity like identity theft and e-fraud, but also secure honest e- commerce transactions. Conclusion E-commerce exists in a time where it is both needed and wanted. Businesses and consumers alike have accepted this market as one where globalization can become a reality. The collaboration and network opportunities that stem from e-commerce are the biggest advantages of the system because they give way to so many possibilities. When fully utilized, e- commerce has the potential to create and drive efficient economies around the world.

Pedigree lab essay

The pattern of inheritance is the manner in which a gene is transmitted. For example, the inheritance pattern of may be as an autocross dominant trait that is transmitted from father or mother to son or daughter. ‘ states the doctors fro m Medicine. Phenotypes are the physical characteristics expressed with each certain genotype. While genotypes are the genetic structure/ coding in our DNA (not visible) that decide what and who we are. Examples AR chromosomes which decide if we are a boy or girl phonetically, XX means gig RL whereas XX means boy.

Alleles are basically alternatives to each gene, there can be recessive or doom ant alleles. There are 6 pattern of inheritances,but I’m only going to talk about 5 because Mr.. O said t here would be no polytechnics so there is: Complete Dominance, Incomplete Dominance, Cod eminence, Multiple Alleles and Sex Linked Traits. Complete Dominance is when there is one allele and two o possibilities you either get the phenotype or you don’t, in this pattern of inheritance there are of coo rise recessive and dominant alleles.

In incomplete dominance and Codename three possibilities can be found, there are no nominate or recessive alleles found and a distinct mixing can be found Bette en the genes. In multiple alleles pattern of inheritance there are multiple alternative to the same gene, an example of this is blood type where the alternates are A,B, and O blood. The last of these is sex traits, sex linked traits are located on the X chromosome since the Y chromosome is too small to carry any DNA, if most of the males in the said pedigree chart are affected then the disorder is X linked, if its 50/50 and probably autocross.

The independent variable in this lab was the phenotype which in this case was du l noses. The control was the normal beforehand pedigree chart of both the Chemosynthesis’s and the Akin Chairman families stretched through 4 generations. The dependent variable is the number of pee pole affected with said phenotype (dual noses) in both families. We first received info on how the who ole family was set up, and then once the pedigree was set up we worked on finding out which patients h ad the trait and which ones didn’t and from there we were able to figure out what pattern of inheritance I t was. Pig. Materials: paper Procedure rest: first we were given the pedigree information about each family we drew our pedigree accordingly then we were assigned groups and phenotypes (dual noses) we found out the names of the people with said phenotype and shaded their shape in to mark them so it would be easier to tell what kind of pattern of inheritance they have after studying the chart for about 30 minutes we came to the conclusion of our pattern of inheritance Observations observed that there were half of the people affected with the dual nose phew note on on each side of the pedigree 6 on each 12 in total. D that the Akin Garcia chain family yes had the dual nose phenotype present in all generations except t the first but the only reason it’s present in the 2nd 3rd and 4th generations is BC it was brought in by others (people they married, so technically it isn’t the Gimcrack a Chain based trait Pig. 2 We found that out Of 71 people in the pedigree only 12 had the phenotype Of dual noses 16%. We also noticed that there was an equal amount of women and men who had this trait as well as the fact that there were six of the 12 on each side of the pedigree. G. 3 (cut out ) Pedigree Key ?dual nose present D= dual nose not present regular woman regular man phenotype present in woman phenotype present in man Normal identical Twins phenotype present in Identical Twins Table 8 Collective Pattern of Inheritance/phenotype Results Phenotype Members Pattern of inheritance Scales elbow Sex Linked (dominant) body hair Incomplete exoskeleton Complete (recessive) Assuming that both Engel and Ethel are Homozygous (ad) for the trait of dual nose, this is their pungent square prediction.

We expected 100% with regular noses (ad) and we observed 100% regular no sees Assuming that Rural is homozygous(ad) for the trait and that Constance is hate rigorous recessive (Ad) for the trait this is their pungent square prediction. We Expected 50% dual nose (ad) and 50% Regular nose (ad) in this situation and we observed 50% with dual noses and 50% with regular noses. Pig. As Assuming that Ron is Homozygous (ad) and Nancy is heterozygous (ad) for t he trait of dual noses then this is their predicted pungent square.

Conclusion You can spot different types of patterns of inheritance by knowing which key things to kick for in a pedigree chart. Like p argental hangs in the people affected by the phenotype in each generation, maybe more males have the trait than woman, or maybe there is simply a mixing which can indicate cod eminence or Incomplete. My hypothesis was that If when looking at the number of people shaded in our pedigree and find that the number is increasing each generation then we can assume e that the pattern of inheritance found here is Complete Dominance (dominant).

This statement w as clearly supported due to not only the steady increase Of people with the phenotype each generation, 0 r with the pungent squares reductions are almost exact, or the fact that there were only TVВยป’0 possibilities (dual nose or regular) which narrows it down considerably. According to the Pungent square Engel and Teeth el both make a 100% assurance for no dual noses, and when you take a look at the second generate on pedigree you can see that none of their kids hold the trait.

But in the second generation Rural married Co instance who we say is heterozygous for the trait therefore according to the Pungent square they have e a 50/50 of their children getting the trait and its exactly as predicted they have 2 children and only one wows the dual nose trait. Last but not least leaves Ron and Nancy, they too had a 50/50 and 2/4 of thee r children ended up having dual nose due to the dominance of the inheritance.