The anthropologist either lives among or spends a substantial amount of time observing, even participating in the lives of those being studied in their natural I habitat, in order to determine key components of an individual culture (Truman, C. , n. D. ). This allows the researcher to better understand how shared ideas, values, and perceptions c name to be, and how it has resulted in a culture’s shared behaviors, feelings, and activities, among o there traits specific to individual societies and cultures (Havilland Prints, Walworth, & McBride, 2008) . Justification
A qualitative research method, participant observation is a key component in anthropological research. It allows the researcher to observe and participate I n the lives of those being studied. This allows the researcher to collect data and draw conclusions by observing the nuances only an insider would be privy to. It provides a look into the everyday lives of those being studied, an important part of understanding how cultures form and ho w differences between cultures occur. Research Method Two: Historical Analysis Historical Analysis is another method of research employed by anthropologist
Historical analysis allows the researcher to study a culture’s oral and written h stories, accounts from explorers, missionaries, and traders, as well as through historical dotcom nets and records (Havilland, prints, Walworth, & McBride, 2008). By comparing a culture’s past wit h the same culture as it is currently, allows researchers to better understand how change occurs over time. This allows the researcher to form a better, more educated theory. Sociological Research Methods Sociology is defined as the scientific study of human society and social interact scions (Tetchier, 2011).
Unlike anthropology, which studies all aspect of humanity inch duding past cultures and societies, as well as biologic evolution, sociology focuses on hum an society and social relationships. Among other things, the field of sociology attempts to UN deterrents why certain events occur in society, such as crime, as well as the sociological effect s of aging, and how economics affect a society’s crime rate. Research Method One: Survey One method of research is by surveying a population, or a sample of a popular Zion. Participants are given a survey or questionnaire to complete, or are interview d face to face by researchers.
Surveys reveal important facts about the individual in terms of w hat is being studied. One such survey is the Nielsen survey, which asks participants to answer sues scions about their television viewing habits. The data collected is then used to inform advertiser s and television markets about a population’s preferences and viewing habits (Tetchier, 201 1). Many surveys are quantitative research methods as they often collect data from a large amount of respondents, which is then analyzed via mathematical algorithms (Truman, Cћ n. . ).
Justification Answers given during a survey, questionnaire, or interview can help form a pi couture of the social and economic factors affecting a given population at one point in time. By comparing changes in variables over time, surveys given to the same respondents over a period of time can provide insight as to why a respondent’s behaviors or opinions of a given to pick may change over time. This type of data analysis can provide insight into why things happy en, and what circumstances could lead to a recurrence.. Research Method Two: Participant Observation
Just as in anthropological studies, sociologists employ participant observation to collect data. They too observe or live among a particular group in order to paint an a accurate picture about participants’ daily lives, and the attitudes and behaviors of individuals, as well as the group in which they interact. Comparing and Contrasting Research Methods in Sociology and Anthropology Participant Observation Participant Observation is a popular research method in both sociology and a anthropology, however the components being observed can vary greatly.
Anthropologists o serve participants in order to learn many things. Anthropologists observe participants to deter nine everything from how who we are today biologically has evolved, to how individual cultures ca me to be. Sociologists are most interested in the sociological point of view. For example anthropologist may study an entire society of tribal members to determine h owe their culture came about, and has helped form individual behaviors and beliefs of the cult rugs people. While a sociologist will study specific aspects of an individual group in a society.
For example they ay live as a homeless person, a subset of people within a society, to deter nine how people become homeless, how they survive, and how the feelings and opinions of the e homeless population differ from the mainstream population in a society. Historical Analysis As most sociologists focus more on the current issues of today’s societies and human behaviors, in an attempt to understand the current State Of a society or it’s v arioso population subsets, and attempt to improve the lives of humans living today, historical a analysis would not be as useful for sociological research.
Historical analysis is useful to anthropology y because anthropologists are most concerned with where we came from and how we g to to where we are today. Studying historical documents and accounts give them a glimpse into t he past and helps to understand how we may have evolved biologically, culturally, and as a society. However, a historical sociologist will use historical analysis to determine how a society, or subset thereof, has formed over time. Us rave Surveys can be used for both anthropological and sociological research.