Back to The Future essay

It definitely revolutionized the movie industry and affected all movies to come b introducing elements that no one has dared to explore. Marty McCoy, a student in 1 985, goes to his dear friend Doc Brown’s laboratory y to play with a guitar amplifier. However, the Doc tells him he needs help with his new experiment: a time machine built out of a Tailored. Though in disbelief, Marty decides it is b est. to go see and/ or help him. Upon arrival, Marty finds the Doc with the car. He says it runs off plutonium and he has enough to run the car.

He demonstrates this by sending his dog o nee minute into the future. Soon after the Libyan terrorists that he stole from come and gun Doc down. Marty successfully escapes but is accidentally sends himself back in time, to the year 1955. When he arrives, he catches his dad, George, (now super duper young) spying g on his future mother. He shouts up to his dad, causing him to fall in the road. An once owing car is about to hit George when Marty jumps and pushes him, saving him, an incredible AC t Of bravery.

This causes Marty to be injured, and he is noticed by his future mother, Lorraine. S he brings him 2 inside to nurse him back to health, but in doing so, accidentally starts to fall in love with him. However, she was supposed to bring in George! This has officially stopped the meeting of Martyr’s mom and dad, causing him to not exist in the present, where he came from. Now he needs to get his father and mother to meet in a certain period of time before he ceases to exist. The most obvious technology in this movie is the use of time travel.

Marty Ms Fly time travels using a Tailored with a flux capacitor. It is fueled with plutonium, which h is very troublesome for them, as they must figure out how to collect plutonium. How ever, when Marty visits the future, the car gets fitted with an upgrade that allows it to be fueled tit waste and trash instead of plutonium. Additionally, the car must reach a maximum spree d of 88 MPH to travel forwards or backwards through time, whichever is displayed by the intent reface presented by the flux capacitor.

This proves to be a very important factor in the movie, as t he only way they are able to escape certain situations is by reaching this speed of 88 MPH. Back to the future has a major con related to time travel which heavily outwit sighs the pros. It is obvious that when you time travel anything you do, no matter how big or little, can have an impact on future events. In this case, Marty might have never been b Ron, because his mother fell in love with him instead of his dad, and if he didn’t fix it, then he w loudly have existed.

This shows that time travel is too risky of a task to pull off, and is not worth any benefits such as adventure. 3 Time travel is an intricate subject that involves forces partially out of our know welled. However, movie producers are able to fabricate details for a good story. In the e example of Back to The Future, time travel brings Marty into another reality where both he and his parents exist together. In this reality, Martyr’s mother falls in love with him!

This prevents he r from loving his dad, therefore making them not be able to have a kid, therefore killing Marty MIMIC! The only way for him to fix this is to insure that his mother and father end up falling in love and having a baby again. Overall, the main technologies in the movie are very different. The idea of a it traveling Tailored is pretty ridiculous, but also very cool. The idea of a hover road is actually quite possible, but not in the next two years. These things Can be great but co old also ruin the pace time continuum, or maybe even gravity itself.

Key questions Unit essay

Then from 1984 to 1 995 the ratio between the two earners remained relatively constant. This suggests that during this timeshare the income gap was not widening. At 1996, you can see on the graph that there starts to become a small increase in the total annual income ratio of the two types of earners, this gap then once again remains relatively constant until 2006. If you compare the above rape of Ontario Ratio of highest to lowest earners to Canada’s ratio of highest to lowest earners you will see that the graphs are almost identical with the same increases, decreases and ratios remaining constant.

Even the actual numbers from the percent ratios are very similar. 78. If you wanted to conduct a study comparing annual income distribution for the United States there are a few important things you must do and consider. Rest, you must determine where you will collect your data from that you will use for the study. You also want to make sure the data you collect is from a liable source. For instance, one place you could look that would have a record of annual incomes for various years would be United States Census Bureau. If at all possible choose a source that is the most reliable.

Also, when planning you want to take into account what biases may occur and how to avoid them. For instance, you need to make sure that the right sampling method was used to retrieve your data because you want to make sure that the sample you choose is representative of the entire population you are trying to retrieve your data from. You want the people sampled from all the efferent parts of the country not just one. If you only had data for people from California and not the rest of the county, your study would be non- representative of the population you were trying to study.

Also, you would need to be mindful of possible limitations of the data. An example of a limitation could be the cost of living. When you plan your study is this something you will take into consideration and account for? Should you also consider the rate of inflation’s influence on the total annual income? When collecting and comparing the data you retrieve for the study a good way to do his would be by making charts and time-series graphs of the different income earners and then compare the trends seen in the data (just like I’ve done above in the previous questions).

The charts and graphs would make it easier to compare aspects such as income ratios and future income of the earners. The more factors that are taken into account when planning and collecting data for a study, the more reliable it will be in the end. All of the above factors considered will help to ensure greater accuracy in your study and help you retrieve the best results possible. Key Question Lesson 20 9.

Self Assessment of Leadership Practices essay

Scoring myself for the Seven Habits Profile was a little hard because the degree of my performance may not be as accurate compared to if it was one of my co-workers evaluating me. As best as I could, I evaluated myself based on the statements given. I scored “good” to “very good” on most while received fair on some. I received my good scores in Emotional Bank Account, Life Balance, Think Win-win, Seek First to Understand, Synergies, and Sharpen the Saw. Received my highest score of 15 in three categories, one of which is the foundational habits of the

Seven Habits, Life Balance. Believe this is a very meaningful section. It talks about having balance in all aspects of a person’s life: work, family, and friends. It also talks about balancing the amount and degree of work done to where it does not cause exhaustion. Another aspect in this category is keeping in mind the needs of the people that I am working for. I received a fair score on some categories as well. These categories are Be Proactive, Put First Things First, and Begin with the End in Mind. The lowest score I received is in the latter.

I do agree in this evaluation. P to now, I am unsure about what I want to accomplish in life. I have been in the nursing field for the past 10 years, but am uncertain if I want to stay in this field. I am currently delving into the business field, to determine if it is something would like to do. I am also a procrastinator. Do not make any preparations for what I need to do. I do however plan early of what I would like to do, although do not end up being able to accomplish it on time. Leadership Strengths I have been working in a psychiatric hospital for the past 9 years.

For four ears, I worked as a Licensed Vocational Nurse while in the last five years as a Registered Nurse. I have also been working as a house supervisor. I manage roughly one hundred employees daily. In order to do so, I use my Transactional Leadership skill. According to Bass (1985), transactional leaders pinpoint their followers’ needs and actively participate in an exchange for a job well done, like handing out rewards. I show this through honesty and integrity. A leader who is untrustworthy is someone their followers will not follow. Show honesty and integrity because I do not promise anything that cannot do.

One specific thing is employees agreeing to help out and work overtime in exchange for working in a specific unit. I make sure the employee is aware that if I am unable to schedule them in the unit they prefer to work at, that they are aware of this before schedule them to work. It is then up to them to still agree or refuse to work. The employees need to know the truth so they understand what they are getting themselves into. Another strength I show that refers to a transactional leader is sociability. Sociability means having interpersonal skills.

I have the capability to speak tit the employees in a professional manner but still be able to connect with them in a personal matter. Employees come to me in private to speak about their issues and concerns at work. Multiple employees have told me that they feel comfortable with me because they feel like I know what they are experiencing and that understand where they are coming from. I feel that this is a very important aspect as a manager because the employees should be comfortable to speak to the managers about their problems. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

Lab Rose essay

Otherwise, your experiment will not work properly since the solvent will evaporate. 3. Describe the comparisons you made. (14 points) made comparisons Of colored dyes from different sources like Reese?s Pieces and M&M Candies to determine whether the coloring components are the same. I chose the same yellow color. The independent variable I chose is the different brands. The dependent variable is measured using the chromatography paper. 4. What was your independent variable? (15 points) The independent variable I chose is the different brands. 5.

Which colors appeared to contain only one component? (15 points) The color that appears to contain only one component, based on my data, would be black. 5. Which colors were consistently composed of more than one color? (1 5 points) The color that was composed of more than one color was purple; it is made up of red and blue dye. 6. Why does the technique require you to use a pencil to mark the original spotting line? (15 points) The technique requires the use Of a pencil to mark the original spotted line because chromatography is intended to split up a suture of compounds into its subparts.

If you use a pen, the ink will also be separated. You mark it with a pencil so the mark will be there when you done with your experiment. 8. The solvent in the jar is approximately 1 CM deep, yet the spot on the paper is la CM up on the paper. Why is it important to keep the spots above the solvent? (15 points) It is important to keep the spots above the solvent because it is to protect the spots from dissolving in the solvent. If the spot is submerged in the solvent, it will go to all directions, and you can’t collect data.

Having the spot above the solvent allows for the solvent to spread up the paper by capillary action. 9. What conclusion did you reach? Were the components of the dyes similar or different? Justify your answer using your empirical evidence. (15 points) The conclusion I reached was that the components of the dyes are different. The RFC value would not be the same for every solvent as there are factors that allow each solvent to be unique. The attractive force, particle size and solubility of each solvent will create different results each time. 10.

You run a chromatograph of Non different food colorings, each consisting of a single substance. One food color (spot X) has a RFC value of 0. 350 and the other (spot Y) has a RFC value of 0. 750. Draw a sketch of the chromatograph. Include and label in your sketch the origin, the solvent front, and two labeled spots. (20 points) Origin is dotted line. Black lines are solvent fronts. Red line is spot Y. And green line is spot X. 1 1 -As the owner of a patented ink for pens, you suspect that another company has stolen the mixture. How could you use chromatography to rove they are using the same formula? 20 points) To prove another pen company has stolen the ink mixture I would use chromatography to calculate RFC=distance component moves/distance solvent moves. If I get the same RFC, then another company stole the mixture. 12. Forensic scientists use chromatography in crime scene investigations. Give an example Of an instance when a forensic scientist would need to use chromatography. (20 point s) An example of how Forensic scientists use chromatography would be in analyzing documents that are under investigation for possible forgery.

Items such as checks could be analyzed with chromatography to conclude if different inks were used while writing or signing the document in question. Submission Complete the above questions in a Word document and email the lab to your instructor via ROI Mail by the due date indicated in the Course Calendar under the Announcements Section. You can also submit your assignment by faxing it directly to your instructor. This is an option for those assignments that are not submitted electronically. Please check with your instructor for his or her specific fax number.

Effective Listening Strategie essay

I enjoyed the way the article provided different ways of listening. Active listening skills has stated that interviewers should participate actively which can be shown by facing the client, keeping eye contact, stay focus exactly what the client is saying, and making sure to respond when needed. The article gives statements on how to use reflective listening. I have learned that interviewers must restate exactly what the client says, in which it will show and prove that the interviewer is listening.

I also read that the interviewers should not have any distractions such as flipping through papers while the clients is speaking. I also read in this article I learned that facing the client, sitting up straight, or leaning forward will show the client we are attentive. Interviewers must maintain eye contact, however, this will show the client we are interested in what he or she is saying. I believe can apply what I learned from this article to my everyday life by focusing directly on what a person is saying to me.

I have learned I should not let anything distract me, for the reason that my clients will know they have my undivided attention. I do not believe that giving eye contact would be a problem, because already make eye contact with a person when he or she is speaking to me on a daily basis. Am excited to be have learned these strategies I will definitely use them in my practice because I want my client to receive the best services for whatever situation they may be in. I can honestly say that these strategies I believe would help me become a better listen to my clients as well as others.

The second article had decided to read was called as “Timely Advising: Incorporating Counseling Skills into the Advising Appointment”. This article is about a student who comes into the financial aid office for some assistance, even though she is unfamiliar with the proper steps. The students approaches the front desk where she is guided impatiently to a teller who has no patience in dealing with her. The teller then has an attitude and directs the student to receive a signature from the director.

After the student reaching the director office, the director exhibits negligence by looking through their phone and pays no mind to the student but instead seems to try and lock the office. The students receives the signature from the director and takes it back to another sectary which appears to be more comforting and nicer than her other encounters. The sectary files the students with a smile and converse with others students, the sectary also wished her a good evening. The article that read also included a section called “Utilizing Relevant Counseling Skills and Techniques”.

Reading the article it was about how advisors should use active listening in ways they will be able to understand what the student is going through, and help her create and implement solutions. In this article it stated how using verbal and nonverbal encourages will help the student feel like part of the conversation, and this will make them be able to open up more. This article also states how summarizing and paraphrasing the student’s feelings and statements can help the student feel that they are understood, and this makes them willing to provide more information to the advisor.

The article states add information on asking questions, paying attention to nonverbal language that will open conversation to feedback and reflection. It is important to maintain an open posture and face the student so that it can establish communication interest n the conversation, and to have the ability read the student’s body language to see if he or she is open, and engaged or closed and disinterested can guide the questions an adviser asks. (Vive et. Al. , 2010, up. 130-133). Learned that by listening to the students it is just as important as advisors are giving them advice.

When showing the students they are important it will make the student confident to allow the advisor to help them. Also learned when you are aware of things around the environment can establish a great impact on the situation. I do feel that if a person is not comfortable in the current environment the experience will not be effective. I have also learned when asking open-ended questions it can be a useful tool to guide to steer the conversation in the right direction. I believe these strategies can used in my everyday life definitely for the fact that they can be effective with my clients.

The final article that I read was called “Quality of a Good Counselor”. This article states how counselors should be patient, observant, good listener, knowledgeable, always have empathy, personal integrity, confidentiality, and maintain a therapeutic relationship with a client. This article focuses on counselors needs to be successful. In conclusion, Active listening is practiced when counselors or interviewers listen to what the client is saying and they are focusing their r attention on the client.

It is important for counselor to practice attentive behavior towards their clients, this act is when the counselor greets their client politely to make them feel comfortable. Counselor should always maintain eye contact to show their client they are interested in the conversation. These article expresses you should ask open- ended questions instead of closed-ended questions. When counselors are asking closed-ended questions their clients will be only required them to answer in a yes or no answer form.

Structure of salt essay

Without her wisdom, the researchers would not have gathered enough data as quickly as they had, and the research would have taken much longer to finish. Her assistance is greatly appreciated. Of course, there would have been absolutely no investigatory science project if it weren’t for the researchers who had worked very hard alongside their other school homework’s/projects. Without their extra input, especially on their vacant times, the IP would not have been as thorough as it is. This research had been a group effort, indeed. And every one of the researchers had their own contribution, which made this IP easier to conclude.

The researchers would also like to thank the supervisor of the investigatory project and science teacher, Ms. Reexamines B. Sanchez, for giving her input and corrections. If it weren’t for her help, this IP would have turned out disastrous and untidy. And without her, the researchers would not have learned about the wonders of food preservatives and the different effects of various food additives, as well as the chemistry behind it. Abstract This study was conducted to discover the most effective and advisable food preservative between sugar (sucrose) and salt (sodium chloride).

The process f food preservation used was curing, and was applied to a fish, instead of meat, for a faster result. After soaking two fishes in salt and sugar respectively, time yielded the conclusion. Results revealed that the fish soaked in salt withstood bacteria accumulation better and had a more favorable odor than the sugar-soaked fish. Difference between the two was significant, for the fish soaked in sugar had emitted a somewhat foul smell and looked slightly inedible than it’s salted counterpart. Overall, the researchers were able to ascertain that salt was, indeed, a better preservative than sugar.

Table of Contents Title page 1 Acknowledgement 2 Abstract 3 Table of Contents 4 List of Figures 5 Introduction 6 Statement of the problem 7 Hypothesis 7 Objectives 8 Significance of the study Scope and limitation 8 Definition of terms 9 Review of Related Literature 10 Methodology 1 1 Results and Discussions 11 Conclusions and Recommendations 13 Appendix 14 Bibliography 16 Personal ………. 17 List of Figures 1. 1 Salt and sugar comparison table … 7 1. 2 One week result comparison table…………………………………………………………………. 2 1. 3 Structure Of Structure of Introduction Salt and sugar are the most common seasonings in the world. For centuries, these have been sought out and scavenged for. With these food additives being ubiquitous nowadays, we take for granted their importance in our modern society. Can you imagine a world where salt and sugar does not exist? Our food would lose their taste and our appetite will be less than satisfied. Long ago, seasonings were as valuable as gold. One of the reasons Magellan led a legendary expedition was for spices and seasonings.

Yet one of the more pertinent reason as to why these are so valuable is because of one thing – their preservative properties. Salt and sugar in Western Africa was more valuable than gold centuries ago, simply because it preserved their meat and fish during long hours of travel by sea. Merchants, traders and travelers kept abundance of them like they did water, because it Was necessary for profit and survival. This brings up the topic of preservation. Preservation was practiced before the common era, approximately, 1000 BCC. The earliest practice of preservation was done by drying.

But now, one of the most common ways of preserving food is called ‘curing’, in which food such as meat or fish is soaked in salt and/or sugar. Food preservation can be done in different ways, but this research serves the purpose of providing a cost-free, easy way of lasting your meats and fishes for days. There are many food preservatives, but there are two in particular which is readily available in every residence. Salt and sugar. This research will uncover which of the TV is better and more beneficial for your food and for your health.

Statement of the problem This study seeks to determine the better preservative between salt and sugar. While both have preservative qualities and can be used to aid foods to last longer, there is always a question of which to use. The research will answer which preservative is more effective, with factors including the smell, appearance and overall duration of preservation. Hypothesis salt Sugar Table salt removes water and creates a solute-rich environment. Osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth. Salt also slows oxidation process, preventing the food from spoiling quickly.

Sugar preserves food by lowering the water activity. If the water activity is 85 or less, spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can’t grow. Adding sugar to appropriate levels can prevent bacterial growth. Fig 1. 1 Salt and sugar imprison table As seen in the table above, the process of both seasoning in preservation is quite similar. More specifically, the way both undergo osmosis to achieve their given task – lengthening the shelf-life of foods. However, this is what piqued the interest of the researchers. Given the impeccable similarity of the two, more thorough research was required.

After delving further into preservation-related articles, books, and websites, researchers have uncovered an uncertain decision of whether one is better than the other. However, after much skimming, perhaps salt is preferable than sugar. Salt is more commonly used in preserving meat, and cooks/chefs are more inclined to use sugar in preserving fruits. There must be a correlation as to why this is. In other words, researchers are uncertain but somewhat convinced that salt is better for preserving foods such as fish, beef and other meaty products. It is much more used in comparison to sugar.

But a proofed-conclusion is needed to make an absolute recommendation. This is why performing an experiment is advisable, wise and logical. Objectives With this study, the researchers hope to discover once and for all the more effective preservative between sugar and salt. Since there are no clear answers yet, the researchers want to provide it and assist people to determine which to use in their meats in order to prolong it’s edibility. Since preservation with the use of either salt or sugar is cheap and effective, having a definite contrast, comparison and knowledge between the two can help to even lessen the cost.

It helps to know which is better for the food, as well as for the health and welfare of those who consume it. By this, people can be rest assured in their choices. This is the core objective of the researchers. Significance of the study As stated in the objectives, the researchers desire to enable consumers to have a clear choice between sugar and salt for the use of meat preservation. This saves both money without forsaking health benefits. Because by using the wrong preservative and/or applying too much quantity can lead to startling hazards for the well-being of people.

Scope and limitation Scope This research covers the basics of preservation by using the most common method of fish preservation, which is called ‘curing’. Salt and sugar are compared by experimenting on two fishes and observing their progress in the pan of a week. Limitation This research did not test other meat and/or fruit products. Meaty products such as beef or pork would have taken longer to experiment and would have been more expensive. It also does not delve further into other types Of preservatives and/or preservation methods.

Curing is the most easiest method of preserving food, particularly fish, hence the researchers decided to use that particular method instead. Definition of terms Food preservation – the process of treating and handling food to stop or slow down food spoilage, loss of quality, edibility or nutritional value and thus low for longer food storage. Curing – refers to various food preservation and flavoring processes, especially of meat or fish, by the addition of a combination of salt, nitrates, nitrite or sugar.

Osmosis ? a process in which salt or sugar draws water out of the food to be preserved over the semi- permeable surface of the food, from one solution into another, thus making the environment inhospitable for most bacteria and mold. Lasciviously – is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lasciviously. These are “friendly” bacteria that normally live in our digestive, urinary’, and genital yester without causing disease. Lasciviously is also in some fermented foods like yogurt and in dietary supplements. Ubiquitous – constantly existing, being every,’here or commonplace.

Edibility ? whether a food is good for human consumption. Shelf-life – the period of time a stored food will be edible before its expiration. Putrid – an unbearable, foul smell. Equilibrium ? a State Of rest or balance due to the equal action Of opposing forces. Review of Related Literature Food preservation is the application of techniques to prevent or minimize undesirable changes in food. Food spoilage can be prevented and reduced if application of food preservation techniques, skills, and principles will be taught to and learned by common Filipinos.

The basic knowledge and understanding of the different tools and equipment are also important before attempting to process food for future use. Through food preservation, wastage of food can be reduced. The principles underlying the methods of preservation are the prevention or delay of microbial decomposition by keeping out microorganisms, prevention or delay of self-composition of foods, and prevention of damage caused by external factors such as insects, rodents, dusts, fumes, odor, fire, heat, or water damage. Curing is the cheapest and easiest way of preserving food.

The preservative removes water from the food as it penetrates the tissues. With this method, the food becomes harder, thus preventing spoilage. Two ways of curing are adding salt to food or soaking it in brine solution. (Edit Tamping Rafael (201 0), Technology and Livelihood Education, (pig. 120)) Protection of foods from microbial spoilage using salt (usually sodium chloride) or sugar (usually sucrose) has ancient roots and is often referred to s salting, salt curing, corning or sugar curing. Curing may utilize solid forms of salt and sugar or solutions in which salt or sugar is mixed with water.

There are several ways in which salt and sugar inhibit microbial growth. The most notable is simple osmosis, or dehydration. Salt or sugar, whether in solid or liquid form, attempts to reach equilibrium with the salt or sugar content of the food product with which it is in contact. This has the effect of drawing available water from within the food to the outside and inserting salt or sugar molecules into the food interior. (Michael Aurelian (2005), Charcuterie: The Craft of Salting, Smoking, and Curing, (pig. 3)) Methodology In performing this experiment, the researchers used two fresh fishes bought from the local wet market, 1 to 2 cups of salt and 1 to 2 cups of sugar. They prepared the needed materials, which included two small plastic containers, cups, and the all important salt and sugar. After gathering all the materials, the researchers briefly cleaned the fishes (for hygienic purposes, of course) and proceeded to coat the first fish with salt. The second fish was handled the same way however, sugar was used instead. Afterwards, the researchers also sprinkled salt and sugar to the respective containers.

They placed the coated fishes to their proper places and closed the lids. Time was the only factor left. Results and Discussions After an interval of time, the researchers opened the lids of the containers and found that the salt had removed the water from the fish. The water sloshed around the container, and the researchers threw the water away and inspected the salted fish. It had no foul odor. The sugar-cured fish, on the other hand, had little difference. Little to no water was visible in the container as opposed to the salted counterpart.

Results showed that sugar in fish did not drain the water out like the salt did. In addition, the fish seemed to emit an undesirable odor and looked inedible. The result of the one-week experiment is presented in the next page in table format: Salt Edibility (SALT / SUGAR) Saturday The fish’s appearance and smell is normal. The freshness is still retained. The fish’s appearance and smell is normal. The freshness is still retained. EDIBLE / EDIBLE Sunday Slight water has moved out Of the fish. The smell and appearance is normal. No water has moved out of the fish. The smell is slightly foul.

Appearance has not changed. EDIBLE / INEDIBLE Monday The salt has completely removed the water from the fish. The smell is slightly foul. The fish emits a putrid smell and the appearance has a slightly greenish color to it. INEDIBLE/ INEDIBLE Tuesday The fish has completely spoiled. The smell is putrid. The fish has completely spoiled. The smell is even more putrid. INEDIBLE / INEDIBLE Wednesday The fish is beyond inedible. It has expired. The fish is beyond inedible. It has expired INEDIBLE / INEDIBLE Thursday It has expired The fish is beyond inedible. Friday Fig 1. 2 One week result comparison table

Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusion All-in-all, the results are clear. Salt is, in fact, much more effective than sugar. The proofed conclusion is that salt is more advisable over sugar, and should be used in preserving any fish one desires to keep. Despite lasting for only two and a half days, the salt-cured fish had lasted far longer than its sugar- cured counterpart. Recommendation Salt can be used as a preservative for other meats, as well. Sugar is also an effective preservative, but research shows that it is effective in the fruits area rather than in the meat area. Appendix

Salt and Sugar (in reference to curing) Table salt (sodium chloride) is the primary ingredient used in meat curing. Removal of water and addition of salt to meat creates a solute-rich environment where osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, retarding their growth. Doing this requires a concentration of salt of nearly 20%. Fig. 1. 2 Structure of salt The sugar added to meat for the purpose of curing it comes in many forms, including honey, corn syrup solids, and maple syrup. However, with the exception of bacon, it does not contribute much to the flavor, but it does alleviate the harsh flavor of the salt.

Sugar also contributes to the growth of beneficial bacteria like Lasciviously by feeding them. Different factors of food spoilage Spoilage of foods which is decay or decomposition may be due to microbiological, microbiological, chemical, and physical causes. Microbiological factors include yeast, mold, and bacterial activity. Microbiological factors include insects, rodents, and other animals. Chemical factors are those catcalled by enzymes of tissues. Physical factors are such changes caused by freezing, burning, drying, and pressure. The chemical effects of salt as a preservative

Sodium chloride or table salt is the main ingredient used in the preservation of meats. Salting meat draws water out and tying up the water within, making it unavailable for chemical reactions that cause decay. High concentrations of salt also interfere with the replication of microorganisms such as bacteria. Salt curing frequently uses salts containing nitrates. Nitrates act as antioxidants in preserved foods, preventing decay and spoilage through oxidation and free radical generation. However, high consumption of preserved foods containing nitrates may be linked to a higher risk of cancer.

Adolescent Egocentrism Case Studies essay

Teenagers have the ability to make things clearly apparent and obvious in egocentrics through an imaginary audience that is watching every move that the teenagers are making. For example when a mother is with her teenage son, and they are exposed to the public and the mother tries to show her feelings and emotions to her son when he is surrounded by his friends. A teenage boy will think that this is not a cool thing for his mother to do. Now lets take a look at the imaginary audience and what the audience would hind?

When I reflect back and think about it I can remember when my mother would try to embarrass me by trying to clean my face in public and or she would my the statement to me, “k baby will see you later, and she would even ask me for a hug. It came to the point that had to tell my mother that as a teenage boy I didn’t feel that it was cool for my mother to be hugging and kissing me in a public place. In my mind I felt that the imaginary audience was around and that everybody was watching us and if they were to see us that I wouldn’t have their approval. Case study 2 deals with the personal fable.

A personal fable is what makes a person feel like they are the center of all the attention. Can relate this to back when was in high school, me as well as a few of my friends would sit in class and be the class clowns because we were always there cracking jokes and just laughing and making our classmates laugh as well. We thought it was all eyes on us and all of our classmates eyes were on us as well as our teachers eyes because she got tired of hearing what we were saying and listening to what we were doing that she decided it was time for us to receive a referral to the principals office.

The impact of agricultural growth on economy growth essay

This paper investigates the contribution of agricultural sector and petroleum sector to the economic growth and development (GAP) of the Nigerian economy between 1960 and 2010 through the application of Augmented Deceitfully technique in testing the unit root property of the series; after which Chow breakpoint test was conducted to test the presence of structural change or break in the economy. The results of unit root suggest that all the variables in the model are stationary and the results of Chow breakpoint test suggest that there is no structural change or break in the period under review.

The results also revealed that agricultural sector is contributing higher than the petroleum sector, though they both possessed a positive impact on economic growth and development of the economy. A good performance of an economy in terms of per capita growth may therefore be attributed to a wallpapered agricultural sector capital. A major policy implication of this result is that concerted effort be made by policy makers to increase the level of productivity of agricultural sector in Nigeria by improving expenditure on the sector so as to boost the growth of the economy.

Since the agricultural sector is the major contributor to GAP in Nigeria which is capable of changing social indicators of the economy, policies aimed at adequate financing of agricultural sector by government in order to boast its output, may result into a way forward. Government evolves policies toward diversifying the economy and encouraged the campaign for improvements in the non-oil sectors of the economy especially agricultural. Keywords: Contribution of Agriculture, Petroleum and GAP growth and the Nigerian economy 1.

Introduction Agriculture and petroleum sectors are the key sectors in the Nigerian economy. These sectors are the ‘brain box’ of the Nigerian economy. Agricultural sector is vital source of raw materials needed for the agro allied industries, especially Beverages Company, food and exports. It was the cornerstone of the economy in the asses and early asses. Nigeria was heavily dependent on agriculture, which was the sector accounting for more than 40 percent of the Pre-1 973 GAP.

It was the major source of funds for implementing the first development plan, 1962-1968. Within a decade up to 1983 however, agricultural output in Nigeria declined to 1. 9 percent and export fell to 7. 9 percent. Agricultural imports as a share of the total imports rose from 3 percent in the late 1 9605 to 7 percent in the early asses. Insignia’s unfavorable agricultural development resulted from the loss of competitiveness among farm exports as the real values of the Nigerian Naira appreciated substantially from 1970 to 1 972 and from 1 982 to 1983.

According to the Central Bank of Nigeria report, “export-oriented agriculture declined from 42 per cent of the total export in 1970 to less than 3 per cent in 1985. ” 758 Amine Muar and Anon Abdullah Suburbia The sector has suffered from years of mismanagement, and inconsistency in the government policies and the era of huge oil revenues has also contributed in the neglect of the agricultural sector. Major agricultural products are Cassava, corn, millet, cocoa, palm oil, groundnuts, rice, rubber, sorghum, yam, and livestock production.

The sector still accounts for over 26. Percent of GAP and two thirds of employments. Nigerian is no longer a major exporter of cocoa, cotton, groundnuts, rubber and palm oil. The continuous decline in the agricultural sector despite huge investments in the sector, which among others include the establishment of River basins and Rural Development Authorities, the Agricultural Development programmer, ADAPT, (funded jointly by the World Bank and the federating Units in ore than 20 Agricultural Research Institutes.

Over the years, especially in the early asses and late asses, modest programmer were evolved: the Bassoon’s Operation Feed the Nation (VON), Shari’s Green revolution, and most recently, Bassoon’s agricultural programmer in 2004-2005, prominent was the cassava projects and much attention given to the sector. During the 2007, president Year Ado’s 7 point agenda also places emphasis on Food security. Despite all these, agriculture has failed to keep pace with Insignia’s rapid population growth.

Nigeria once exporter of food, now relies on imports to sustain its growing population. Change in the structure of the Nigerian export composition was not until 1970 with the new ‘entrant oil. The Petroleum sector brought about fundamental changes in the Nigerian economy. Increased dependence on the oil sector had brought mixed feelings by the Nigerian government when it became the ‘life line’ of the economy due to increase dependence such that all sectors of the economy suffered the showplaces.. According to Marino a former NAP Managing Director, “…. Overspent economic policies seemed to be dominated by the mentality that money is not our problem” (Marino, 984, p 23) had brought crisis in the Nigeria economy Over the years due to continuous dependence on the sector- for instance the crisis in 1 985 brought economic emergency measures that culminated to the SAP year in 1986, to the most recent adjustments due to a drastic fall in the oil price in the 2009 budget. According to OPEC report of trends in global demand it showed that: The financial crisis dominated market sentiment as the economic slowdown dented petroleum demand growth. Pig. 1) These are the trends in the sector that have plagued all sectors Of the Nigerian economy for many years. Policies aimed at diversifying the economy re yielding slow progress, especially the million sector. 2. Theoretical and Conceptual Review Agriculture Agriculture involves the cultivation of land, raising and rearing of animals, for the purpose of production of food for man, feed for animals and raw materials for industries. It involves forestry, fishing, processing and marketing of these agricultural products.

Essentially, it is composed of crop production, livestock, forestry, and fishing. The role of agriculture in reforming both the social and economic framework of an economy cannot be over-emphasized. It is a source of food and raw materials for the industrial sector. It is also essential for the expansion of employment opportunity, for reduction of poverty and improvement of income contribution, for speeding up industrialization and easing the pressure on balance of payment (Unknown, 1981).

In effect, it has been the main source of gainful employment, which the nation can feed its teeming population, a regenerative source of foreign exchange earnings, a means of providing the nation’s industries with local raw materials and as a reliable source of government revenue. However, since independence, the role of agriculture in the economy has been on the onward trend especially its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GAP). It shares to GAP fell from 39. 9 percent in 1970/71 to 20. 0 percent (based on constant prices) in 1988.

This situation has partly due to the emergence of oil as an important commodity and partly to the poor performance of the sector. This contrasted position by 1 963/64 year when agriculture contributed as much as 61. 50 percent to the GAP. 759 An Empirical Analysis of the Contribution of Agriculture and Petroleum Sector to the Growth and Development of the Nigerian Economy from 1960-2010 Central reason for formulating economic policies are to regulate the aerogramme of the economy; the optimum use of resources and achieving stability in the overall linkages in the sectors of the economy, are the desired paths of any economy.

Most of the literature relating to the Nigerian economy seems to always trace the structural changes in the economy resulting from changes in export revenue to the near neglect of vital sectors like the agricultural and the industrial sectors. This has always been attributed to trends in government policy making. It is important to measure the contribution of these sectors (Agriculture and Petroleum) because what we are measuring is the overpayment’s role as direct economic agent in the formulation Of policies that affects the pace of the economy.

Changes in the structure of the Nigerian economy had brought with it business cycle-like description. Some of these periods were severe especially the years culminating to SAP years, a period where the economy could be described to be in a mild recession. This period defined critical aspects of many sectors like the industrial, agricultural and changed the social welfare function of individuals in Nigeria. The economy depended on a volatile oil sector.

According to Graham(1978), “where imports are of developmental tauter, such as capital goods and fertilizers, and are not domestically substitutable, a short fall in export earnings will tend to exert an adverse infill ounce on development and growth of an economy’ Croakier (1994) showed that Nigeria had caught the pandemic of the Dutch Disease because in the peak of the oil boom, it experienced heavy dependence on the imports due to rise in exports over the years.

Rise in government pratfalls became punch- holes for government expenditure and further made worst government investments for the provision of public good. Reynolds (1975) opined that agricultural development can promote economic voltmeter of the underdeveloped countries in distinct ways: By witnessing the supply of food available for domestic consumption and referring the labor needed for industrial development. By enlarging the site of the domestic market for the manufacturing sector. Iii) By increasing the supply Of domestic savings and By providing the foreign exchange earned by agricultural exports. In their contributions, Melanoma and Rogues (1979) were of the views that most developing countries’ agriculture has been assigned an important role in national development. To them, agriculture has been seen as a means of educing dependence on certain importance, containing food price increases, earning foreign exchange, absorbing many new entrants to the labor market and increasing farm income at times of severe unemployment and rural poverty.

Johnson (1970), agreed with the above views that the appraisal of the agriculture’s contributions or role in the national economy can be made using the primary criteria namely: the proportion of the population engaged in agriculture, the share of agriculture in the Gross Domestic Product, the proportion of the nation’s responses devoted or employed in agricultural reduction and finally, the contribution of the agricultural sector to foreign trade.

Thus, in attempting to assess the importance of the agricultural sector in the Nigerian economy, our focus is to examine the contributions of the sector to food supply, employment, and source for raw materials to the industrial sector, (generally the Gross Domestic product) and export earning and Balance of payment. This is important especially as Nigeria makes proposals in the vision 2020 to become one of the 20 industrialized nations. It must in its preference place priorities on vitals sectors of the economy because these re the spring board for the realization of Nigerian vision. 60 Am inn Muar and Anon Abdullah Suburbia According to Anyhow J. C (1999) the bulk of the Nigerian population lives in the rural areas where their major occupation is agriculture. Statistics has shown that over 60% of the Nigerian population engage in agricultural activities, that is to say agriculture is the major employer of labor in Nigeria but the sector has been experiencing neglect since the advent of petroleum in asses. This lead to high level of unemployment, abject poverty and wide spread income inequality that hampered the growth and development of this country. According to Proof.

Dudley seer there are basically three indicators of development in a country namely:unemployment, poverty and income inequality. To him if these three things are not reducing rather increasing a country is considered underdeveloped, this is the Nigerian situation. Petroleum Modern activities in mining have involved crude petroleum and associated gas production in which foreign owned oil companies are partners (and local prospectors from 1990). The development of the petroleum (oil) industry in the county began in the first decade of this century. It started with exploration activities by the German Bitumen Corporation.

In 1937, an oil prospecting license was granted to shell Diary Exploration Parties. In 1955, Mobil Exploration Nigeria Incorporated obtained concession over the whole of the former northern region of the country. This company carried out some geological work, drilled three deep wells in the former western region and abandoned the concession in 1 961. In 1 958, the company started production. In 1961 , the Federal Government of Nigeria issued ten oil prospecting licenses on the continental shelf to five companies. Each license covered an area of 2,560 square kilometers and was subject to the payment of IN m.

With these generous concessions, full-scale on-shore and off-shore oil exploration began. Oil was found in commercial quantities at Lobbied in Niger Delta. Further discoveries at Foam and Boom established the country as an oil-producing nation. By April 1 967, oil from Nigeria had reached 2 million barrels per day. Mining sector is the prior sector in Nigeria since late asses with the discovery of oil in commercial quantity in some part of the country. The mining sector has been the mainstay Of the Nigerian economy especially petroleum. Petroleum sector is the major contributor to GAP over the years as indicated y the current statistic.

At average petroleum is contributing almost 40% to GAP, in 1990 its contributed 37. 46, 48. 19 in 2000 but its contribution decrease to 29. 62% in 2009. The falling nature of this sector is attributed partly to the crisis in the Niger Delta region and partly due the overwhelming emphasis given to agriculture with the current global food crisis and the need for the country to diversify its export base. With the discovery of crude oil in commercial quantity in the early asses the contribution of agricultural sector has been on the decline due partly because of the neglect of the sector as ell inadequate agricultural policies. . Empirical Review Kookier (2011) investigate the contribution of agricultural sector on the Nigerian economic development and reveal that foreign direct investment on agriculture contribute the most (56. 43), this means that for every unit of change in FED on agriculture there is a corresponding change of 56. 43 unit in GAP in Nigeria. Salesman and Amine (2010) conducted research on the contribution of agriculture, petroleum and manufacturing sector of the Nigerian economy and found out that agricultural sector is contributing higher than both petroleum and manufacturing sectors.

The paper reveals hat agriculture is contributing 1. 7978 units to GAP while petroleum is contributing 1. 14 units to GAP which is less than the contribution of agriculture. Awe and Jay (2009) conducted research on the diversification of the 761 Nigerian revenue base for economic development reveals that the RE for agricultural revenue was significant when the log of revenue from agriculture was tested on the revenue from agriculture. About 60 percent of the movement could be explained in the relationship.

The findings from the study further revealed that dynamic relationship exists between the revenue from the non-oil sector economic development. Keep and John (2012) revealed that the contribution of agriculture to GAP, which was 63 percent in 1 960, declined to 34 percent in 1 988, not because the industrial sector increased its share but due to neglect of agriculture sector. It was therefore not surprising that by 1 975, the economy had become a net importer of basic food items. The apparent increase in industry and manufacturing from 1 978 to 1988, was due to activities in the mining sub-sector, especially petroleum.

Muhammad and (2006) conducted study on production of agriculture in Nigeria and revealed that the negative coefficient of the value (-0. 7) of the food imports indicates that as food import increases, domestic agricultural production decreases. This might be due to the fact that food importation exposes the local farmers to unfair competition by foreign producers who usually take advantage of economies of scale in production due to their access to better production technology. The positive coefficient (286. 91 ) of the GAP growth rate indicates that increase in the GAP also moves domestic agricultural production in the same direction.

This shows that increased domestic economic activity has the impact of increasing the domestic agricultural production. This may be due to the fact that most economic activity in the country is related to agriculture. The result also shows that population increases has been a major contribution to domestic agricultural production in Nigeria with the coefficient (18424. 73). This may be due to the fact that majority of the populace are engaged in agriculture, meaning more hand on the farm as population increases.

The coefficient of consumer price index was positive (8. 49). This shows that as consumer price increases domestic agricultural production also increases’, meaning that domestic agricultural production is costively related to increase in consumer prices. This may be due to the fact that increase in price stimulates supply on the farmer’s side leading to more production of food. More agro-processing activities must therefore be embarked upon in order that farmers may be able to dispose of their produce at fairly reasonable prices. The result Of the coefficient (0. 4) of government expenditure was positive, that is domestic agricultural production is positively related to increase in government expenditure, meaning that as government expends more on agriculture, domestic agricultural production also increases. The reason why it was not significant might be due to the fact that government has not been investing so much on agriculture over the years. 4. Data and Method of Analysis Data The data used for this paper/study are basically time series data covering 1960- 201 0, that is fifty-one(51 ) years.

The data were sourced from Central Bank Nigeria (CB) Statistical Bulletin. Method of analysis The research work makes use of the econometric procedure in estimating the relationship between the variables. The ordinary Least Square (OILS) technique will be employed in obtaining the numerical estimates of the efficient of the equation, Augmented Dick-Fuller test of stationary would be adopted after which Chow break point and Chow forecast test would be used to test for structural change in the economy.

The OILS method is chosen because it possesses some optimal properties; its computational procedure is fairly simple and it is also an essential component of most Other estimation techniques. 762 In demonstrating the application of ordinary least square method, the multiple linear regression analysis was used with the GAP, Agriculture and petroleum, as the relevant variables. The dependent variable is GAP while the Agricultural output and petroleum output are the independent variables. Justification for the selection of these methods was that the data was a time series data and all time series data exhibit a random walk.

Models specification This paper employed the model of Cob-Douglas production function with constant returns to scale as: GAP = CRABBING PETROLEUM Where GAP is defined as gross domestic product (output), a is the total factor productivity; AGRIC is the contribution of agriculture to GAP ; PETROL is the contribution of petroleum to GAP; Bal and 82 are the constant elasticity efficient of agriculture and petroleum respectively. The logarithmic conversion of the equation above yields the structural form of production function as: Logged = Logo + Bal Allegoric + Bolometer + Logo (2) Where Logged Log of Gross Domestic Product.

Logo = BOO is the intercept. Logical Log Of contribution Of agricultural sector to GAP. Electro Log of the contribution of petroleum sector to GAP. Logo = Log of white noise error term which is assume to be 1. P = white noise error term. Hypotheses HO: Agricultural sector is not the major contributor to GAP of the Nigerian economy relative to petroleum sector. HI: Agricultural sector is the major contributor to GAP of the Nigerian Priori Expectation: O, Bal O. 5. Results and Discussion Table 2 in the appendix contains multivariate regression results of growth model.

The results indicate that both the coefficient of agriculture and petroleum sector are statistically significant at 1 percent level as indicated by the probability value 0. 0000. This implies that a percent change in the output of agriculture and petroleum will increase GAP by 215. 29 and 79. 25 respectively which is consistence to the theoretical expectation and found to be positive. The intercept is found to be statistically insignificant an inconsistent with the theoretical expectation and found to be negative (I. E. BOO Coincidentally, the goodness of fit of the regression remained high after adjusting for the degrees of freedom as indicated by the adjusted RE (RE = 0. 9993 or 99. 93%). Fascistic 36800. 46, which is the measure of the joint significance of the explanatory variables, is found to be statistically significant at 1 percent as indicated by the corresponding probability value (0. 000000). The Durbin-Watson statistic 2. 982 implies absence of autocorrelation in the model, the 763 Durbin-Watson statistic 2. 3982 in table 2 is higher than RE 0. 993 this indicate that the model is unconscious and therefore can produce meaningful results. Table 3 in the appendix: Chow Breakpoint Test reveals that there is no structural break in the Nigerian economy for the period under review. The null hypothesis of no structural break is accepted with low Fascistic value 0. 1235 and a corresponding high probability value 0. 9929. Table 4, 5 and 6 in the appendix contained the unit root test results. The results revealed that all he variables of the model are found to be stationary at both 1 percent, 5 percent, and 10 percent level.

GAP and contribution of agriculture (ALLEGORIC) are both stationary at second difference (d(2)), while the contribution of petroleum is stationary at first difference (d(l which is indicated by UDF results at all levels greater than the critical values in absolute term. 6. Concluding Remark This paper investigates the impact of contribution of agricultural sector and petroleum sector on the economic growth and development (GAP) in Nigeria through the application of Augmented Deceitfully technique in testing the nit root property of the series and Chow breakpoint test in testing the presence of structural change or break in the economy.

The results of unit root suggest that all the variables in the model are stationary and the results Of Chow breakpoint test suggest that there is no structural change or break in the period under review. The results also revealed that agricultural sector is contributing higher than the petroleum sector, though they both possessed a positive impact on economic growth and development of the economy. A good performance of an economy in terms of per capita growth may Hereford be attributed to a well-developed agricultural sector capital.

A major policy implication of this result is that concerted effort should be made by policy makers to increase the level of productivity of agricultural sector in Nigeria by improving expenditure on the sector so as to boost the growth of the economy. Since the agricultural sector is the major contributor to GAP in Nigeria which is capable of changing social indicators of the economy, policies aimed at adequate financing of agricultural sector by government in order to boast its output, may result into a way forward.

WEEK assignment essay

Today, however, you and your employees use computers and e-mail, the Internet, cell phones, and mobile computers connected to wireless networks for this purpose. Networking and the Internet are now nearly synonymous with doing business. “( ) As far as communication networks go Baker Hughes has top notch technology for their employees and customers. Employees are assigned specific clients and are expected to be able to communicate with hem at any time; this means employees are to be accessible to their clients at all times.

Employees are issued take home cell phones, and also issued programmed lap tops to make sure any issues that may arise for the clients will be handled and resolved even if the employees are not at work. The Telecommunication service Baker Hughes contracted was AT&T services. They decided to use them for phone and internet communication, and were successful using both. Communication is very important to Baker Hughes, without it many things could go wrong and the company could end up losing housands of dollars.

Communication is such an important aspect for Baker Hughes that they decided to contract AT&T and create a department for them specifically. Doing this ensures the communication between Baker and their customer is always possible. Having AT&T as an in house provider gives them an advantage over competitors, in a sense that communication is a constant and never a issue. For any company an affective computer network system is very important to production and process. Without a working system a ompany is unable to function properly and it can reflect poorly on their customers.

Baker Hughes utilized major networking systems; each system has its own importance to the daily functions of the company, and provides connection and communication throughout the entire company. Communication is so important for a oil and gas company, With the transportation of large and very expensive equipment; being able to communicate with drivers clients and employees is imperative. Baker Hughes describes communication as “It’s critical to secure data and to ensure that usiness activities and decisions are not interrupted by connectivity issues.

Our services protect confidential data, while in transit, from unauthorized access, using data encryption and rigorous security standards. ” Using satellites to improve communication connection gives Baker Hughes a huge advantage over their peers and has contributed to their success. Local area networks are used in small businesses and in large corporations like Baker Hughes. was employed at the Baker Hughes in the greater Houston area, but there were several locations all over Houston. Communication between the employees at each location in Houston was necessary so Baker was able to utilize the (LAN) system.

UPS as an industry essay

International shipping is a huge every growing industry, with UPS leading the pack for shipments delivered and exchanged internationally. The demand for international shipping has increased dramatically over the years, and with this increase it calls for an increase in service which in return places much more pressure for performance on UPS as an industry. Working in international shipping myself I have learned that many things can affect the shipping process, especially when the shipment is international. One major factor that affects any shipment is the price of fuel.

Fuel prices fluctuate constantly, so depending on the fuel price can determine rather a shipment is delivered and paid for appropriately. Every international shipping company will experience the International Shipment Processing System. This system is necessary to ensure the customers shipment will be delivered in allocated time. During the duration of the shipment, data regarding the shipment will be transmitted daily. With internationally shipping very specific documents are needed at both the departure port and the arrival port, in order for the shipment to be cleared by customs and livery to proceed.

If these documents do not arrive to the destination before the cargo, then delayed port charges will occur. Using the SIPS system allows the customers enough time to create these documents in time, to prevent port fees. This system ensures delivery of shipments and provides data that allows shipments to pass though ports smoothly. In the business world and in our own personal lives, it is important for us to be able to access shipments and purchase data online. UPS uses a Delivery Information Acquisition Device (DAD) in order for customers to track shipment information online.

The first thing a UPS driver picks up each day is a handheld computer called a Delivery Information Acquisition Device (AID), which can access one of the wireless networks cell phones rely on. As soon as the driver logs on, his or her days route is downloaded onto the handheld. The AID also automatically captures customers’ signatures along with pickup and delivery information This system is able to capture signatures and relays information quickly regarding packages. This system shows when a package was delivered or picked up within 60 seconds of completion, at this time the shipments information would be reflected online.

UPS leads the trail for success in the supply chain industry. In order to keep this incredible growth going, they have to stay up on the latest operations and business systems. LIPS has always been successful in carefully capturing information regarding an order. With this incredible attention to detail they have been able to grow at a phenomenal rate, and expand the operations internationally. With this growth come more profit and capitol for the company. Using the capital growth UPS has always been able to purchase all the new technology to ensure the growth and excellent service continues.