Secretbrain essay

The main idea of this article is primarily focused on how the brain works and function, understand memory and how your brain reacts to different situations. Also, other aspects of how researchers are finding new ways and various methods to find solutions to understand the brain better. The brain is a difficult organ to understand, researchers are doing experiments on animals to try to find ways to repair brain functions that have died.

This article also talks about different testing they are doing on different parts of the brain. List three important facts that the author uses to support the main idea. One fact the Mark Nichols says about the brain is “Scientist around the world are tackling age old mysteries of the brain and beginning to solve such puzzles as how memory works and why some people’s psyches can withstand the kind of horrific experiences that traumatized others. Mark Nichols also discusses how Canadian Researchers are trying to find a cure for unrepresentative conditions such as Parkinson, Huntington, and Lou

Geris Diseases, and show how to find out why brains cells don’t regenerate after injury. He talks about how the brain contains about 50 bill to 100 billion brain cells that make it very difficult to grasp what all the goes on in the brain. What information or ideas discussed in this article are also discussed in your textbook? Research Methods Neural Bases Of Behavior Tour through the Brain. What is the conclusion of the author? Do you agree or disagree and why? The Article is based on facts and applied research. Im not a scientist so I can’t agree or disagree.

However do find it baffling that there is so much study of the brain that goes unseen. Its unbeliever to think how many hours, days, months researchers put in time to find or come up with different ways to uncover the brain. Think would say that the research shouldn’t stop. It will be very interesting to find out what will come with all the research and clinical test. Would like to thank you for opening yam eyes to this article. This concludes my appreciation for researchers and scientists for what they do. Us mammary The article is “secret of the brain”, this is a true statement.

The brain has lions and billions of parts that are untapped. This article is opening my eyes to see exactly how much research is worked on just for the brain and how it works. The article also talks about different research that could help with various kinds of breakthrough that could help millions of people in everyday lives. I still and blown away at the fact as researchers have many ways to examine the brain and all this money and still really haven’t found many cures to help with neurological cases. It also seems like Canada is the forefront of where a lot of this research goes on at.

Strengths Based Leadership essay

Once you know what specific strengths you bring to the table, you can then start working on honing those strengths and enhancing them even further. If you keep at this, you will be doing all you can to become a great leader and if you’re fortunate enough to be in the right place at the right time, you may get involved in projects that live on long after you’re gone. The best leaders always live on because they shape the thoughts and beliefs of the people within their organizations. “When we invest our financial resources, we understand that it’s best to bet on winning funds, stocks and companies.

Most of us know better than to sink all our money into a business that has continually struggled. Yet when we think about how to invest our personal resources, we continue to put more mime and energy into perennial losers. Instead of honing our natural strengths, we strive to fill in what nature left out. The path of great leadership starts with a deep understanding of the strengths you bring to the table. ” Tom Rata and Barry Conchie About of Author TOM RATA has worked for The Gallup Organization for more than fourteen years and currently leads Callus’s workplace research and leadership consulting practice.

He is the author of two books How Full Is Your Bucket? And Strengthening 2. 0. Mr.. Rata, a -2- graduate of the University of Michigan and the University of Pennsylvania, also serves on the board of directors offal. Org, an organization dedicated to cancer research and patient support. BARRY CONCHIE is a leadership consultant who is also employed by The Gallup Organization. Mr.. Conchie was a public sector leader in the United Kingdom before joining Gallup in London. He specializes in executive assessment, team diagnostics and succession planning. Mr..

Conchie is based at Callus’s Washington D. C. Head office where he now leads Callus’s leadership consulting practice. The Web site for this book is at strengths. Gallup. Com. -3- Callus’s research has shown when an organization’s leadership fails to focus n the individual strengths of the people who work within it, only about 9%(about one-in-eleven) employees become engaged. When the leadership make focusing on the strengths of employees a priority, the level of engagement rises to almost 73% (three-in-four). This eightfold increase in level of engagement is significant.

It can generate substantial gains for the organization’s bottom line while simultaneously enhancing each employee’s individual well-being. Its little wonder, therefore, that effective leaders keep on investing in their individual strengths and in the strengths of their people. -“elf you spend your life trying to be good at everything, you will never be great at anything. While our society encourages us to be well-rounded, this approach inadvertently breeds mediocrity. Perhaps the greatest misconception of all is that of the well-rounded leader. – Tom Rata and Barry Conchie The idealized leader is a superb communicator, a visionary thinker, a hands- on specialist in everything who can also get the right things done and follow through in fine detail on everything discussed. This leader does not exist. As desirable as all these traits may sound on paper, nobody has genuine world- lass strengths in all those areas. A much more likely scenario is you’ll find a leader who is world-class in one or two very specific domains and then is average or just slightly above average in all the other areas of the business.

The paradox is when leaders try to become competent in all areas, they actually end up becoming less effective than those who focus on making the most of their strengths. From a personal perspective, if you concentrate on extracting every last benefit from what you already do well, you’ll be much more productive than if you try and get better at the things you are weak at. This thought leads directly to two other ideas: C] To lead effectively, you need to have an acute awareness of your own strengths and then organize yourself to spend the maximum amount of time every day working in those areas of strength.

C] You can’t become an effective leader by striving to be like other leaders you admire. It just doesn’t work that way. If you try and emulate someone with a different set of personal strengths, all you end up doing is taking yourself out of your natural element . This is setting yourself up to fail. As effective leaders focus on and reinvest in their strengths, it sets off a self- enforcing cycle which generates what can be termed a “cumulative advantage” that continues to grow over the course of their careers. They are good at something, so they keep doing it.

The more they do it, the better they become and the more opportunities they seek out to use their strengths. This, in turn, leads to even more individual and organizational growth. The cycle keeps on repeating itself over and over as leaders continue to capitalize on these disproportionately good gains. This is a very good place to be. As counterintuitive as it may sound, the best leaders are not at all well- rounded individuals. Instead, they tend to excel in one of four specific areas: 1 . Executing – they know how to make the right things happen. 2.

Influencing – they know how to sell their organization’s ideas both to insiders and outsiders. 3. Relationship building – they are good at keeping a high performing team together and on song. 4. Strategic thinking – they keep everyone focused on the possibilities and what could be. Save leaders know where their own strengths lie and therefore build their own team made up of individuals who are exceptionally strong in those areas in which the leader himself or herself is weak. Great leaders achieve more because they assemble and utilize a better team than average performers.

They put together great teams and then harness the collective talents of the team to maximum effect. If not most leadership teams come together by circumstance or default rather than by deliberate design. It’s not at all unusual for the various team members to be drafted in on the basis of their knowledge or competence in some function of the enterprise – the top finance guy becomes SCOFF, the smartest IT person gets to be CIO and so on. Effective leaders reverse this dynamic. They deliberately recruit new people ho have strengths which complement those of existing team members.

Technical proficiency is also needed to be sure, but the primary consideration for effective leaders is to get talented people onto their management teams with the right mix of unique strengths and then blending those skills together to do great things. “What you have to think of is the potential of the person, not his appearance. And if you can discover hidden potentials, that can make a great difference to your organization. You have to distinguish between loyalty and brilliance. Most leaders prefer loyalty over brilliance; they’re afraid they’re going to be undercut.

My view is different. ” – Simon Peres, Israeli president “In recent years, we have studied leaders who built great schools, created major nonprofit organizations, led big businesses, and transformed entire nations. But we have yet to find two leaders who have the exact same sequence of strengths. While two leaders may have identical expectations, the Way they reach their goals is always dependent on the unique arrangement of their strengths. ” “I’ve never met an effective leader who wasn’t aware of his talents and working to sharpen them. – Wesley Clark, former NATO Supreme Allied Commander A leader needs to know his strengths as a carpenter knows his tools, or as a physician knows the instruments at her disposal. What great leaders have in common is that each -5- truly knows his or her strengths – and can call on the right strength at the right time. This explains why there is no definitive list of characteristics that describes all leaders. ” -? Dry. Donald Clifton, leadership researcher generally considered to be the father of strengths psychology Over a number of years, Gallup studied thousands of executive teams to try and identify why they worked.

It was found the teams which worked best ended to have strengths in four distinct domains. Or put another way, strong and cohesive leadership or management teams always have collective strengths in four different areas: 1 . Executing – Great teams are filled with people who know how to make the right things happen. There needs to be someone who will work tirelessly to get things done. When teams are good at executing, they can conceive a new idea and bring it to fruition quickly and efficiently. 2.

Influencing – Most times, management teams need to reach a broader audience and build consensus for the right things. There needs to be omen involved who is good at selling the team’s ideas both inside and outside the organization. Influencing is a matter of someone speaking up and making sure the right point of view is presented to these broader constituencies. 3. Relationship building -? This is the difference between having a complete team and a collection of individuals who are each doing their own thing. Relationship building is all about strengthening the glue that holds a team together.

When strong relationships are forged within a team and within an organization, synergy is created meaning the output ends up being greater Han the sum total of the various inputs contributed. 4. Strategic thinking – adders who have strengths in this area keep everyone focused on what could be in the future. These are the kinds of people who absorb new information, analyze it and help everyone in the team use that data to make better decisions in the future. Teams need to have some people in them who can stretch their thinking and help them work towards a much brighter future.

Within these four domains, the Gallup Organization has identified a total of 34 ‘themes” which can be clustered around the four domains of highly effective teams. Effective leaders can use these themes to clarify the interests and motivations of individual team members in a systematic way. Once you understand what themes are dominant in each team member, you then have some clues on the best way to influence and lead those individuals. Keep in mind team members will be a combination of themes rather than just one theme exclusively, so all kinds of combinations and permutations are possible. 6- -7_ -8- -10- -11 -12 -13- By understanding the specific themes which the people in your organization tend to work in, you better position yourself to exploit the collective wisdom of your entire -14- organization. As previously mentioned, the central idea is not to even try to get people to be “good enough” at everything. Rather, you want to get the right strengths on a team and then let each person focus on doing what they do well. In this way, you can make the most of what extraordinarily talented individuals have to offer. Strong, high-performing teams have five telltale signs: 1.

Focus on results -? Strong teams are rarely harmonious. They feature robust debate, heated arguments and lively discussions. Instead of leading to conflict, however, strong teams gain strength and cohesion by debating everything vigorously. This is because people have a laser-like focus on results. They are united in seeking the truth of the matter. 2. Big picture perspective – Great teams prioritize. They have the big picture in view at all times and put what’s best for the organization as a whole ahead of their own egos. That means once a decision is made, high-performing teams rally around making things work. 3.

Personal interests – Paradoxically, many members of high-performing teams have intense outside interests they are committed to as well. This provides a healthy balance to the hard work and levels of responsibility they endure at work. These individuals bring energy and intensity to everything they do, not just their work. 4. Embrace diversity – High performing teams are invariably comprised of individuals who look at issues differently. The best teams welcome that kind of diversity and use it to grow rather than making this a source of irritation. 5. Magnets for talent – Everyone in an organization wants to be on a strong team.

This is especially true for your organization’s rising stars. They want to be where the real action is, where they can make a difference. High- performing teams are not intimidated by challenges and responsibilities, they actively seek them out. Building a strong team requires a substantial amount of time and effort. Getting the right strengths on the team is a good starting point, but it is not enough. For a team to create sustained growth, the leader must continue to invest in each person’s strengths and in building better relationships among the group members.

When leaders can do this, it allows the entire team to spend even more time thinking about the needs of the people they serve. ” -15. People follow leaders for only four reasons: 1 . They trust that leader to do the right thing at all times. 2. They believe the leader genuinely cares about the rank-and-file employees. . They consider the leader is stable and can be counted on in times of need. 4. They have confidence in the leader because he or she makes them feel enthusiastic about the future. Great leaders understand their people and intuitively provide them with just what they need to perform to the best of their abilities. –elf you genuinely want people to follow you, you need to have in mind at all times what any followers need to get from you: 1 . Trust -? Followers will not tolerate dishonesty in any way, shape or form. They need to feel confident they can trust you to act consistently regardless of the circumstances or situation. If you’re not honest at all times, there will be no trust and no respect. Trust significantly increases speed and efficiency in the workplace. Don’t waste time telling someone you can be trusted – show them. 2. Compassion – You have to prove to followers you care about them and have their best interests at heart.

If you do that, your people will become far more engaged and productive. It may not be feasible to build a personal relationship with each of your followers but if you can show them you have a heart, your followers will like you better. 3. Stability – You must have a solid, unchangeable foundation. You need your followers to feel like they can rely on you at all times and under all circumstances. This is especially important during times of rapid change. The more stability you exhibit, the stronger your foundation appears to followers and the more anxious they are to get on the bandwagon. . Hope – Everyone wants to feel enthusiastic about the future. That’s the way humans are wired. [f you want to be an effective leader, you must instill hope in them that a bright future lies ahead. Great leaders respond to challenges, solve problems, -16- remove barriers and create impressive options for the future. If you want people to follow you, fill them with hope that is realistic and inspiring. To achieve greatness as a leader, you need to do something more than merely respond to the issues of the day.

You need to initiate good things for the future Of your organization. Instead Of saying “We’re currently laying off people because of the downturn in the economy,” you should be trying to get into a position where you’re saying “Even though our current business volumes are down, we’re hiring new people so we can be well positioned when the market moves upwards again. We’d like to double our business in the next three to five years. If you focus more on what should happen and less on responding to immediate needs, your people will respond enthusiastically. One of the greatest challenges for leaders is to initiate new efforts that will create subsequent organizational growth. If as a leader, you are not creating hope and helping people see the way forward, chances are, no one else is either. ” – Tom Rata and Barry Conchie “Leaders stay true to who they are – and then make sure they have the right people around them. Those who surround themselves with similar personalities will always be at a disadvantage in the long run to those who are secure enough in themselves to enlist partners with complementary strengths.

Good leaders are always looking for people who can do specific things much better than they ever could. ” – Tom Rata and Barry Conchie “The most effective leaders also get people to follow. Reaching the level where your life?s work and mission continue in perpetuity requires not only being a leader yourself, but developing the people who follow you to be effective leaders as well. As Standard Chairman Mervin Davies put it, unless you can, on command, write down a list of the people you have developed, o may just be in a leadership position by accident.

This is why Davies challenges all of his direct reports to list the people they have developed, and he expects them to ask the same of the people they lead. He understands that the only way to have a broad impact is to create a network of strong leaders that begins to grow on its own. ” “A leader is someone who can get things done through other people. ” – Warren Buffet, investor “I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land”. – Martin Luther King, April 3 1968(the night before he was assassinated) “The est. leaders get to live on.

Think for a moment about the leaders you respect – whether they lead countries, organizations, communities, or families -? who continue to live on because of the way they have shaped your thoughts and beliefs. Even though you may not notice it in the moment, the most effective leaders forever alter the course of your life.

Disease Effects on the Health Care Industry completed essay

These are interventions aimed at improving the peripheral changes that occur with congestive heart failure. Exercise is a treatment modality that has been shown to positively help many of these peripheral changes. Exercise also reduces the symptoms of exertion fatigue, improves the quality of life, and increases survival rates. Medicines to reduce the fluid are still the first line of treatment. Such medicines as Bumble, Lasts and other water reducing medicines assist with the fluid that occurs in the lungs and in the legs forming peripheral edema.

Intro tablets are also another treatment seed for chest pain in this related illness. Mostly because the fluid buildup causes lack of oxygen and then crates angina giving cause to chest pains. (Yamaha & Massive ,2010) There are several medicines that lower your risk of a heart attack. These include: Aspirin or Other antiparticle medicines to help prevent blood clots. An ACE inhibitor or a beta-blocker to help lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on your heart. A stating to help lower cholesterol. To manage symptoms, you might take an angina medicine, such as nitroglycerin.

Procedures If your angina symptoms get worse even though you are taking medicines, o may think about having a procedure to improve blood flow to your heart. These include angioplasty with or without stetting and bypass surgery. They are done when the coronary arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. Palliative care If your coronary artery disease gets worse, you may want to think about palliative care. Palliative care focuses on improving your quality Of life-?not just in your body, but also in your mind and spirit.

It may help you manage symptoms or side effects from treatment. (WEBMD, 201 5) Patients with CHEF not only need pharmaceutical management by physicians ND nurses, but they also require support to enhance their self-care behaviors and non-pharmaceutical management. (True) Implementing personalized, supportive-educational programs based on no pharmacological management strategies might be a useful tool to develop, maintain, and change self-care behaviors. (True) Diet controls and behaviors have a huge impact on CHEF. True) A number of risk factors, such as chemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of CHEF as well as its severity. (True) (Buy, Whorish, & Fontana, 201 1) Coronary artery disease is caused by hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis. This means that fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood throughout your body. Only men get CAD. Myth) CAD is s life threatening disease. (True) CAD can be prevented with the right treatments and lifestyle. (True) (WEBMD, 201 5) Congestive Heart failure (CAB) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5. 8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing CHEF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of CHEF may have plateau, CHEF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers.

CHEF represents a considerable burden to the health-care System, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizing, readmission, and outpatient visits. (Buy, Whorish, & Fontana, 2011) Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the global leading cause of death. It is estimated that 7. 2 million people died world-wide in 2004 from CAD (i. E. Approximately 12%of all deaths). In developing countries the CAD mortality is rising but in developed countries it has been falling since the sass’s.

Social Stratification essay

Comer added to it in 1978 ‘Social Class implies having or not having the following: individual rights, privileges, rower, rights over others, authority, life style choices, etc. “(Comer, 1978) 2) Racial and Ethnic Stratification: Hierarchy based upon race, religion, national origin, etc. Race is basically a distinguishing genetic characteristics resulting in physical characteristics. Whereas, ethnicity is a condition of being culturally rather than physically distinctive. ) Gender: It generally deviates from biological distinction to sociological distinction in the form of masculine and feminine. One is born male or female but is stratified as man or woman later on. Karl Marx in his work ‘Dads Capital’ volume – 3 had provided the general classification that after the primitive communist society all succeeding societies have been class societies. ‘The haves are dominant and have notes are subordinated. Thus, the class system necessarily involves inequality, exploitation and the potential for conflict” (Marx, 1894).

Emilee Druthers along with Parsons and Morton have seen this stratification in different ways. They advocated structural functionalism and maintained that every organ of the society is important just like every part of body for the smooth functioning of society. Hypothesis: i. What role has class, race and gender played in individual’s life? How it get stratified? Ii. Which sociological perspective gets associated with such stratification? What are the bases for particular perspective? Iii. How interview benefits as a research methodology?

Objective: i. Interview two different individuals regarding their position in society. Ii. Identify each person’s class, race and gender. Iii. What role has class, race and gender played in their lives? How this stratifies as playing role? Iv. Apply one of the sociological perspectives to the individual’s lives. Methodology and Descriptive Results Participants: Individual-I – Class: Low-income; Race – African-American; Gender – Woman. Individual – 2 -? Class: High-income; Race – American; Gender – Man.

Role of Class, Racial and Gender Stresses in the Stratification: Class, Race and Gender bias have been identified by an author as key factor in Social Stratification: The woman in America is expected to be beautiful in an ornamental way, she did not work for a living and was ‘chaste’, ‘pious’ and married. The colored women were an obsolete anti-thesis of this image – she was not ornamental ND according to the aesthetics of the country she was not beautiful. Most of African-American women had to work for a living. (Birth, Josh, June, 2009, P. 8) Such ideology referred by Toni Morrison in “The Bluest Eye”, has been exemplified in the process of interview. African-American woman viewed her life as being dominated by racial and gender biases. They are victimized by racism, sexism and classicism, both from the white world and their own men. Class exploitation is perhaps the worst and most pressing source of oppression of colored people in White America. Importance of class issue lies in its link to capitalism, the system which divide classes into two classes: haves i. . , masters and have notes i. E. , slaves. The African-American woman interviewed was working in plantation farm as laborer. One important thing that was noticed during the procedure in addition to racism, classicism and sexism, African-American women are also scholarly neglected. Other person interviewed enjoyed every kind of opportunity and thus, can be put under the heading of Monopoly Class. Hence, a kind of hierarchy is created in which White American Male dominates and is subordinated by African-American Women.

Victims of Classicism, Racism and Sexism know the consequences of social stratification, but on the other hand privileged ones were unaware of any social stratification. Stratification and Conflict: Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison in her Nobel prize lecture said, “Tell us what it is to be a women so that we may know what it is to be a man. What moves at the margin? What it is to have no homes in this place? To be set adrift from the one you knew. What it is to live at the edge of towns that cannot bear our company? ” (Morrison, Karen, 1993).

This patrons tragic conditions of Colored Americans in racist America. African-American primary obstacle is racism and gender bias adds upon to it. In understanding Conflict Theory, Social Classes division and competition plays an vital role. Here are few primary assumptions of Modern Conflict Theory: 1. Competition: Competition over limited resources is primary to all social relationships. Competition rather than consensus characterizes human relationships. 2. Structural Inequality: All Social Structures have inequality in rewards and power. 3.

Revolution or Reforms: Conflict between classes results in changes more often than adaptations. Conflict Theory was further elaborated after Industrial Revolution in Europe by Karl Marx, Max Weber and various other Sociologists. Karl Marx – Class and Conflict : Karl Marx was the direct product of the legacy of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. His principles were based upon Socio-Economic Justice, where he believed that – “From each according to his ability to each according to his need”. Mar’s view on social stratification is based upon his observations post Industrial Revolution in

Europe. He clearly saw a class division between the Capitalists(i. E. Haves or owners of Means of Production. ) and the Workers(i. E. , Have Notes or Proletariat). As a result separation and conflict was inevitable. He saw Intellectual Progress and Material Progress has not been consistent with distribution of goods or access to it. Max Weber – Class, Status, Power and Emotion: Max Weber has redefined and refined Mar’s Conflict theory. He instigated that more than one conflict over property existed at a time between Haves and Have Notes as maintained by Karl Marx.

Weber included further ‘Emotion’ as other aspect of Conflict. Feminist Conflict Theory: Position of women has been explained by feminists using conflict theory. Likes of Simons De Behavior have advocated against the Gender Bias created in the society. Feminist Conflict Theorists argue about the traditional oppression Of Women in the society to provide men, social, power and Status benefits. Conclusion Soon after Industrial Revolution there was inequality simply based upon class. As the society progressed and looked for its solution two more biases came into being.

In the procedure of interview it was noted that primary obstacle for African-American Women lies into Racism and Sexism, ultimately culminating into class bias. As the opportunities are limited progress stalls at some or the other point. These systems of societal and psychological oppression have adversely impacted lives of under privileged communities in SAC. There were benefits of using interview as a research methodology, on account of which untouched biases can also be learned. For example, Gender in one’s own race can become a means of oppression; hence the fact Of laterality among one community is also lost.

Further, interviewing gives us the insight into the actual cause of class exploitation. Along with the benefits of interview method there are several limitations associated to it. Sample size could be inappropriate and can give illusionary results. For instance, African- American women in lot many cases are at the top of Class structure, and hence theory of exploitation and inequality on the basis of Class becomes unwarranted. Further, Conflict arising of the class, race and gender bias can be solved using the approach of structural functionalism.

Pervasive essay

There are many different Native American tribes like, the Moods, Navajo, Onondaga, and the Iroquois. Even though they are from different tribes and places, culture is a big part of all of their heritages. They show it through different stories like When The Grizzlies Walked Upright and The Navajo Origin. But, only one of these stories is most culturally relevant.

When the Moods wrote the myth When The Grizzlies Walked upright, it as based on how the great sky spirit created earth and animals. In this myth the great sky spirits daughter and a grizzly bear mated and created a new race. Everything in this myth was alive and could talk; the great sky spirit lost his daughter when he instructed her to talk to the wind spirit. She went up to the chimney to talk to the wind and it accidentally blew her away. She landed near the home of the grizzles, and the mother grizzly decided to raise her. When she was old enough, she got her married to her eldest son.

That is how the first race of Indians came into being. Word got out to her father the great KY spirit and when he saw and the new race he was in an outrage. He cursed the grizzlies and ran out the new race of children. With The Navajo Origin only man and woman were made. The myth did not explain how earth came about, or if they were a new Indian race. In The Navajo Origin, man and woman were created by the spirit gods. In this myth men and woman washed themselves with cornmeal. Men washed themselves with white cornmeal and women with yellow. They did this for a religious cleansing of the body.

After washing themselves with cornmeal you would chant and shout four times and then the gods would appear. Each god carried different articles to perform a religious ceremony. After the ceremony man and woman came into being. The Navajo Indians were really religious people and believed in rituals and sacred relics. In the myth When The Grizzlies Walked Upright they don’t really have a religion based on how man and woman were made through a religious ceremony. The myth had a spirit and grizzly bear having children. Nothing about that story is religious in anyway, which is a big part of the Native American culture.

The myth When The Grizzles Walked Upright has the most cultural relevance cause it has a deeper meaning within the myth. In the Native American culture they believed there was something greater than them that created the earth and its people. This myth shows that the great sky spirit was a big part of making earth and its inhabitants. They also believed that nature and its animals were very sacred. That’s why in this myth grizzlies were held as sacred animals and to be feared as well. In contrast to the myth The Navajo Origin the story is based on religion and sacred relics.

With religion and rituals can come about a new pure life between man and woman. And starting a new life you have to be married and cleansed so you can live a fruitful life. Both myths believe that there is a god or spirit that put them into existence. And marriage is a very sacred and religious that is respected. But overall, Native American myths share their cultures, believes, and heritages. When The Grizzles Walked upright and The Navajo Origin were two myths that richly expressed their cultures and believes and are highly respected by all Native American tribes. Through these myths they can bond with each other and understand one another.

Booker Veronica Ethical Decision Making essay

Counselors are often placed in vulnerable situation when thinking about the best practices and decision making. Circumstances will arise that could comprise the integrity Of the counselor. In those instances there needs to be guidance and this paper attempts to break down a scenario of an ethical dilemma and the course of action that should be taken when the problems shared occur.

The author uses, The Practitioners Guide to Ethical Decision Making, to explain the process of ethical violations and what actions should e taken to avoid those pitfalls in the future. Included within that model are seven steps broken down to aid the counselor. The author will provide an account of each step in the model. Should a counselor be faced with ethical dilemmas the American Counseling Association provides guidance to the counselor to aid them in the avoidance of ethical violations and legal issues.

The author uses the AC Code of Ethics to show proof of violations in the scenario given. Identify the problem Counselors are tasked with difficult jobs often taking on the emotions of their clients. There are times they may be jeopardizing their own wellness during he performance of their job. Clients are coming to counselors with the expectations their needs will be met by someone who is competent and values them. With that being said, counselors are often faced with difficult decisions to make and are in need of guidance.

Provided is a scenario describing ethical dilemmas. In this particular scenario, Jane, who is the counselor is experiencing stress and burnout. She’s been working consistently for over a year and has not taken a vacation. After finally deciding to take a long overdue break she makes quick plans. There are multiple issues here. The first issue is a matter of impairment; Jane has to maintain wellness in order to serve her clients effectively. Neglecting to take the necessary means to assure that wellness could be harmful to herself as well as her clients.

Jane who has made commitments to see clients, emails them on the spur of the moment to cancel appointments and does make adequate arrangements for the rest of her clients. There is no guarantee her clients will actually read or receive the emails that have been sent out and Jane does not make and arrangements to make certain those clients actually gets the cancellations she’s sent out. The remaining clients are unaware she will be leaving for a week. She fails to have a backup resource for her clients should any issues arise. Jane has violated ethics.

It seems that she has ignored the code Of ethics. As a counselor Jane should already be aware of the possible consequences of her actions. She should have been more concerned about her wellness before she reached a point of burnout. ‘ “When counselor take better care of themselves, there is a positive effect on their ability to meet the needs of their clients” (Lawson, 2007, p. 20). The main goal of the counselor is to create and help maintain the wellness of the client. Jane has neglected to think about the counselor-client relationship.

This scenario could bring about trust issues with her clients. According to Sanders, clients hold the belief that they can trust their counselor and that their counselor will maintain vital standards of clinical care and professional conduct (Sanders, 2013). She is out of line and it could have a major impact on her as well as her clients in a negative way. The professional counselors objective is to benefit the client and work hard not to do anything harmful to their clients (Sanders, 2013). Apply the AC Code of Ethics

It is stated in the preamble section of the American Counseling Association’s Code of Ethics that the counselor should safeguard the integrity of the counselor-client relationship (Association, 2014). The counselor failed in doing that. Jane missed one of the fundamental principles of professional ethical behavior. The principle of fidelity was not met. According to the American Counseling Association’s Code of Ethics, fidelity is when the counselor is loyal and faithful to the client at the same time honoring their commitment to the client. In section A of the AC Code of Ethics, attention is given to violations that fits Cane’s actions.

Counselors are to make sure to accommodate clients when they are unavailable for reasons as such; vacations, illness, and termination (AC Code of Ethics, Standard A. 12). Cane’s actions shows lack of commitment to her clients. When she made the decision to take a vacation without notifying some of her clients she abandon those clients. She could possible face legal actions for the clients that had standing appoints because she has no definite way of knowing if they received the notice of cancellation-The AC Code of Ethics advises counselor against abandoning clients.

Jane neglects to consider the client’s welfare, which is an essential accessibility of the counselor (Association, 2014). It seems that Jane hasn’t done a very good job of taking care of her wellbeing; she has possibly become impaired. According to the AC Code of Ethics, counselors need to pay close attention to their mental, physical, and emotional states, making sure they are not headed towards impairment (Association, 2014). Should a counselor feel that there is an issue he or she should not offer services until they have addressed their issues (AC Code of Ethics, Standard C. . G). Though she is deciding to step away in order to relieve herself of stress and burnout, she’s owing so after she’s reached an impaired state. Jane has not sought out the help she needs to combat her impairment issues. Without Jane taking the necessary precautions to properly deal with her impairment issues she could possibly jeopardize her practice and harm her clients. When counselors are not well they cannot offer the optimum level of care the client deserves (Lawson, 2007).

The counselor’s primary goal is to promote the clients wellbeing and it seems that Jane was only considering herself when she decided to leave immediately (Association, 2014). Determine the Nature and dimensions of the dilemma Considering proper ethical behavior, Jane has violated very important codes. The Practitioners Guide to Ethical Decision Making, provides a model that aids professional counselors in maintaining good ethical behavior. In the guide there are five very important moral principles providing details as to what is consider ethical when faced with dilemmas.

After reviewing those five principles there were some that applied to Cane’s scenario. In this scenario the counselor has neglected multiple moral principles, but, the principle that stands out most is fidelity. This counselor neglects to notify some of her linens of the fact SSH?s decided to take an abrupt vacation, therefore, jeopardizing the client-counselor relationship. The client should be able to trust their counselor and believe in their commitment and loyalty (Holly Forester-Miller, 1996).

Jane has not done a good job upholding the principle of fidelity. Fidelity was not the only moral principle that Jane did not maintain. Even though there is no harm done in the scenario there is the potential of unintended harm. When Jane decides to leave on the spur of the moment for vacation and fails to notify some of her clients an issue arises due to the usability Of one Of her clients having an emergency crisis. She also is has not confirmed whether or the clients that were emailed actually received the emails so they do not show up at her office.

If this should happen the counselor has not been proactive in avoiding causing harm to her client and violates the principle of malefaction. It is the counselors obligation to find ways that are sensitive to the client’s needs and cause them no harm by doing everything possible to avoid situations that are harmful (Sanders, 2013). In this scenario Jane has not done everything within her will to avoid any Seibel harm of the client, she in fact does not give it a thought. She is morally wrong and this wrong could have the potential to be detrimental to some of her clients.

In Cane’s case she neglects to acknowledge the moral principle of beneficence. Counselors are supposed to do all things with in their will to take care of and do no harm to those they are servicing (Sanders, 2013). Jane has not taken the proper steps to ensure that all clients that were in her care at the time were insured that benefit Generate Potential Courses of Action Jane owes it to her clients to make sure she takes the best course of action t all times. Upon making decisions that could affect her clients; she should have reviewed her ethical codes.

If she had done that she would have been more in tune with the proper way to maintain her practice in her absence. First, she should have made plans well in advance to take time off to benefit her wellness. This is something that should never go undone. Though work can be hectic at times, if the counselor is impaired there will not be quality service provided to the client. Secondly, in the unlikely situation that a counselor has to take time off suddenly there should be arrangements made in advance to make sure their linens will be notified and taken care of should they need help.

The AC Code of Ethics states in that if the counselor should be absent there should be procedures previously set up should a crisis occur with a client and each client should be notified of any absences (Association, 2014). Consider the potential consequences of all options, choose a course of action Being an effective counselor means being accountable and taking necessary measures to uphold that accountability. If Jane had laid out plans in advance to take time off to assure her wellness the wellness of the clients would not have been put in jeopardy.

Not only that, if she was at a point in her practice where things were out of hand ,plans should have been put in place before hand for her to take advantage of assistance from other colleagues. Things happen in life that are sometimes unavoidable and the possibility of an emergency leading to the need to take off isn’t farfetched; that is why Jane should have planned ahead. It would be in Cane’s best interest to build a network of supporters in the counseling profession to aid her in emergency situations.

Seeing as though SSH?s become burnout and stressed, she should think about hiring help to assist with her caseload. Jane has an established, successful practice so now maybe the time to consider expanding the practice by inviting other qualified counselors into her practice to service client. If she isn’t interested in bringing on help, she may need to consider reducing her caseload altogether. Though she may not be able to extend service to every client who’s seeking counseling from her; she could provide quality service to all of her clients without the threat of harming them do to impairment.

Jane now has a great chance of providing quality service to more people and preserving her own mental health. Evaluate the selected course of Action If Jane plans ahead, as I believe all counselors should do in case of an emergency or the need to be absent there would be no question of ethical violation for this scenario. There is nothing wrong with taking time to make sure her wellbeing is intact, in fact, her wellness guarantees the quality of her services. She not only maintains her mental health, but, she also maintains a healthy relationship with her clients.

Taking a look at Jeans situation it is evident her practice is doing well and this solution gives her an opportunity to expand her business. By hiring help she promotes the welfare of the client, he community, herself, and the professional standards that are to be upheld. She not only increases revenue, but, she’s able to provide more services to those in need at the Same time not over extending herself. This makes the plan of action a win, win, win situation.

Implement the course of Action An effective counselor is one who is able to maintain a sense of self awareness and take in to account the wellbeing of the client at all times. Staying abreast of the ethical codes that are put in place to make sure no harm is done to the clients served is vital to sustaining a successful career. Clients are trusting counselors to be available mentally, physically, and emotionally and if there are no plans made ahead to maintain their wellness the client could be placed in a desperate situation.

It would be in the client’s best interest as well as the counselors best interest to form professional alliances that promote the clients wellbeing. Counselors should reach out to colleagues in moments of uncertainties as to not violate any ethics or destroy the counselor-client relationship. The AC provides an excellent resource, The Practitioners Guide to Ethical Decision Making, which should be used whenever there is an uncertainty about a choice to be made. Being a counselor is a rewarding profession but it can also become very stressful; this model helps elevate the possibility making a costly mistake.

Acceleration essay

Therefore, its elicit is never vertical and is never parallel to the acceleration. (b) Yes. A projectile at the top of its trajectory has a velocity that is horizontal, while at the same time its acceleration is vertical. 6. Just before it lands, this projectile is moving downward with the same speed it had when it was launched. In addition, if it was launched upward at an angle e above the x axis, it is moving in a direction that is an angle 0 below the x axis just before it lands. Therefore, its velocity just before landing is v ( 2 ran/s ) x” + (-mm/s)y- 8.

Maximum height depends on the initial speed squared. Therefore, to reach twice the height, projectile 1 must have an initial speed that is the square root of 2 times greater than the initial speed of projectile 2. It follows that the ratio of the speeds is the square root of 2. 10. The tomato lands on the road in front of you. This follows from the fact that its horizontal speed is the same as yours during the entire time of its fall. Solutions to Problems and Conceptual Exercises Picture the Problem: You walk briskly down the street while tossing a ball in the air and catching it again.

Strategy: Use a separate analysis of the irrational and vertical motions of the ball to answer the conceptual question. Solution: 1 . (a) As long as air friction is neglected there is no acceleration of the ball in the horizontal direction. The ball will continue moving horizontally with the same speed as your walking speed. Therefore, you need to launch the ball straight upward relative to yourself in order for it to land back in your hand. 2. (b) The best explanation (see above) is Ill. The ball moves in the forward direction with your walking speed at all times.

Statements and II are false because they ignore the inertia of the ball in the horizontal direction. Insight: [f air friction is taken into account you must launch the ball in the forward direction a little bit. While it is in the air the friction will slow the ball horizontally so that it lands back in your hand. Picture the Problem: The vector involved in this problem is depicted at right. Strategy: Separate v into x- and y-components. Let north be along the y-axis, west along the -?x axis. Find the components of the velocity in each direction and use them to find the distances traveled.

Solution: 1. (a) Find vs. and v y ; vs.=-? (4. 2 m/s ) coos 320 = -3. 56 m/s v Y -? ( 4. 2 m/s ) sin 320 2. 3 m/s 2. Find the westward distance traveled: y = 3. 56 m/s 25 min x 60 s/min ) 3. (b) Find the northward x=vet=( 2. 23 m/s )(25 min x 60 s/min ) ivy w 320 = 5300 m = 5. 3 km = 3300 m = 3. 3 km Insight: The northward and westward motions can be considered separately. In this case they are each described by constant velocity motion. Copyright 0 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.

No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. James S. Walker, Physics, 4th Edition 3. Picture the Problem: The vectors involved in this problem are depicted at right. Strategy: Let north be along the y-axis and east along the x-axis. Find the components of the velocity in each direction, and use them to find the times elapsed. Solution: 1. (a) Find the x component of v : vs. = (1. 75 m/s ) cosec. 00 = 1. 66 18. 00 20. 0 m = 12. 05 vs. 1. 66 m/s 2. Find the time elapsed to travel east 20. 0 m: 3. B) Find they component of v: -0. 541 m/s 4. Find the time elapsed to travel north 30. 0 m: 30. 0 m 55. 5 s ivy. 541 or,/s Insight: The northward and eastward motions can be considered separately. In both cases the actual distance traveled is greater than 20. 0 or 30. 0 m, respectively. For instance, in the second case you must actually travel a total distance Of 30. 0 m sin 18. 00 97. 1 m to change your displacement by 30. 0 m north. Picture the Problem: The car moves up the 5. 50 incline with constant acceleration, changing both its horizontal and vertical displacement simultaneously.

Strategy: Find the magnitude of the displacement along the incline, and then independently find the horizontal and vertical components of the escapement. Solution: 1. (a) Find the magnitude of the displacement along the incline using equation 2-11: 2. Find the horizontal component of Ar : coos (140 m ) coos 5. 50 = m 3. (b) Find the vertical component Ar : y = d sin e m) sin 5. 50 = mom 2 = mom Insight: The horizontal and vertical motions can be considered separately. In this case they are each described by constant acceleration motion, but the vertical acceleration is less than the horizontal.

The two accelerations would be equal if the angle of the incline were 450. 5. Picture the Problem: The motion of the particle is depicted at right. Strategy: use the given information to independently write the equations of motion in the x and y directions. There will be a pair of equations for the position of the particle (like equation 4-6) and a pair for the velocity (like equation 4-6), except in this case the acceleration will not be the same as g . Solution: 1. (a) Write equation 4-6 for the x position of the particle using a = (-4. 4 m/s 2) x* instead of g: x=xx+box+exact 2.

Now do the same for the y coordinate of the position: ran,’s 3. (b) Write equation 4-6 for the x component of the velocity using a = ( -? 4. 4 m/s 2 ) x- instead of g: + 2) (5. 0 s) = -22 ms 4. Now do the same for the y component of the velocity: 6. 2 12 (-?4. 4 2 x = -55 m +0 = 6. 2 ms 5. (c) Because vs. continually increases in the negative direction, the speed will increase with time. Insight: This problem is very much akin to projectile motion, with uniform acceleration in one direction and constant velocity the perpendicular direction. The only difference is the acceleration is – 4. 4 m/s 2 and is in the x direction.

Copyright 0 201 0 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Picture the Problem: The motion of the electron is depicted at right. Position of the particle (like equation 4-6), except the acceleration will not be the same as g . Use the equations of motion to find the requested time and position information. Let the x direction correspond to horizontal, and the y direction to vertical. 6. 20 -O = 2. 95 x -95 2. 0 x 109 CM/s Solution: 1 . (a) The horizontal motion is characterized by constant velocity. Apply equation 4-6: . (b) use the time to find the vertical deflection , again using equation 4-6 except substituting a for g. Y=you+vote+12th = O CM +0 CM+ 12 (5. 30 x 1017 10-9 s) 2. 31 CM Insight: This problem is very much akin to projectile motion, with uniform acceleration in one direction and constant velocity the perpendicular direction. The only difference is the acceleration is 5. Xx 1017 CM/so upward instead of 9. 81 m/so downward. 7. Picture the Problem: The paths of the two canoeists are shown at right.

Strategy: Canoeist Xi’s 450 path determines an isosceles right triangle whose eggs measure 1. 0 km. So canoeist g’s path determines a right triangle whose legs measure 1. 0 km north and 0. 5 km west. Use the right triangle to find the angle B. Find the distance traveled by each canoeist and set the times of travel equal to each other to determine the appropriate speed of canoeist 2: CLC 0. 5 kronor 270 Solution: 1. (a) Find the angle e from the right triangle of canoeist 2: e -?tan-1 0 2. (b) Set the travel times equal to each other: 3. Use the resulting ratio to find the appropriate speed of canoeist 2: Earl Are v d v=ova ( 0. Km ) + (1. 0 km ) (1. 0 km) 01. 5 0 = 1. 1 m/s Insight: There are other ways to solve this problem. For instance, because the motions are independent, we could set the time it takes canoeist 1 to travel 1. 0 km horizontally equal to the time it takes canoeist 2 to travel 0. 5 km horizontally. Picture the Problem: Two divers run horizontally off the edge of a low cliff. Strategy: Use a separate analysis of the horizontal and vertical motions of the divers to answer the conceptual question. Solution: 1. (a) As long as air friction is neglected there is no acceleration of either diver in the horizontal direction.

The divers will continue moving horizontally at the same speed with which they left the cliff. However, the time of flight for each diver will be identical because they fall the same vertical distance. Therefore, diver 2 will travel twice as much horizontal distance as diver 1 2. (b) The best explanation (see above) is I. The drop time is the same for both divers. Statement II is true but not relevant. Statement Ill is false because the total distance covered depends upon the horizontal speed. Insight: If air friction is taken into account diver 2 will travel less than twice the horizontal distance as diver 1 .

This is because air friction is proportional to speed, so diver 2, traveling at a higher speed, will experience a larger force. 4-3 9. Picture the Problem: Two diversified off an overhang into a lake. Diver 1 drops straight down, and diver 2 runs off the cliff with an initial horizontal speed vow Strategy: use a separate analysis of the horizontal and vertical motions of the identical because they fall the same vertical distance. Therefore, the splashdown speed of diver 2 will be greater than the splashdown speed of diver 1. 2. (b) The best explanation (see above) is II.

English paper essay

English paper Should sports figures or celebrities be considered role models? Explain how the term “role model” is currently and most commonly used in mass media, and decide if you agree or disagree with who is considered a role model. Explain your position and provide examples. Title page Sports Figures and Celebrities As Role Models : An Annotated Bibliography Christopher Tangelo ENG 122: English composition II Instructor: Mime Garter June 21, 2015 Annotated Bibliography Pickup, C. , & Pester, G. (1999). Would like to be like her/him: Are athletes role-models for boys and girls?.

European physical Education Review, 5(3), 99. The first part of the Journal deals with the meaning of role models for young people. It talks about what young people look for in their sport heroes. Then it breaks it down in different views, one from a boy and another view from a girl. It talks about how boys look up to men in sports and girls look up to their moms and dads and other family members. They did a study where they polled each group and came up with those conclusions. In the second part it talks about how the children views role models and heroes.

They talk about how a lot of children look up to models from literatures, film, and elevation. They look up to princesses and heroes. Then the next part dives in to how sports heroes are looked at in today’s world. How much attention they get in the press and media. It talks about how the media makes these sport role models in to someone that the average person can identify with. The last section talks about specific questions asked to children and how their answers were polled. It was found out that girls and boys mainly look up to role models and idols in the mass media.

I plan on using the information above in my paper by taking from the what people look for in role models. I ill use the specifics to highlight what a role model is in the eyes of young people. Anderson, D. R. , Huston, A. C. , Schmitt, K. L. , Linebacker, D. L. , & Wright, J. C. (2001). IX. Self-Image: Role Model Preference And Body Image. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, 66(1), 108-1 18. In the first section it explains how we as people look at role models and who we choose as role models.

It talks about how mass media offers a host of potential models who appear to be attractive, powerful, and glamorous. And how as children tend to break away from their parents they choose to look at sports ND mass media for role models. The second section goes in to what the mass media perceives as role models. Like men tend to look at sports figures and women tend to look at young woman usually thin and pretty. As the article goes on it goes in to role model choices and how we as people make the choice on who to look up to.

Then goes in to the reason we look up to who we do. We as people tend to look at body image, stature, money and popularity. I would use this in my paper to show what we look at and how we pick our role models today. And how mass media almost tells us who we should look up to. The influence mass media has on people today . Brace-Gavin, J. (2013). More diversity than celebrity: A typology of role model interaction. Journal of Social Marketing, 3(2), 11 1-126. Retrieved from http:// In this journal it talks about the important concept of a role model.

It explains how social marketing plays a huge role in what we look for in too proper role model. It talks about how a role model can change the way young people live their lives. They look up to certain stars and want to be like them. Young people can change the way they go about everyday life and try to immolate their role models. It also talks about the two different types of role models. One being a person who excels in everything and One who has made mistakes and has recovered and is on the right track to life again. Ill take away from this the two different types of role models we look at today. I will talk about how a role model doesn’t have to be a perfect person it could be a guy who plays baseball but battles alcohol issues and still finds a way to beat his demons and be a better person. Read, B. (2011). Brittany, Beyond, and me – primary school girls’ role models and constructions of the ‘popular’ girl. Gender & Education, 23(1 1-13. Ii:1 0. 1080/09540251003674089 This paper talks about the ways in which the gendered social construction of the ‘popular girl’ infuses girls’ ideas as to their role models.

It talks about the different ways celebrities are represented in the mass media today and how young girls look at them. It also talks about how most young ladies look at Brittany and Beyond characteristics rather than their accomplishments. It also talks about how they model these role models to pick up a position of power in their lives. I will use a lot from this paper because it really talk about why young girls look up to who they do and owe mass media makes these celebrities shine. Lawyer, p. (2010). Celebrity Studies Today. Society, 47(5), 419. DOI:10. 007/ asses 5-010-9353-z In this paper it talks about what a celebrity is and how one is made. Public option is what makes a celebrity and these are the people that we look up to today. It talks about what contributes to the word celebrity, like famous people are weird, have different ways of dressing or how many times they been in rehab. It talks about what we as Americans kick for in a celebrity and how we choose one as a role model. We choose them usually because they have same views or beliefs. I really like this paper because it really breaks down what we look at when we think of celebrities as role models.

It really breaks down all the different aspects of the person who we consider to be our role model. I will use all the good ,bad and ugly of celebrities and how it all translates in to certain role models and how the media portrays these different people. Thesis Although celebrities and sports figures can be viewed as flawed and have their lives aired out to the public, many of them are positive people who make a difference and can be considered remarkably role models. Why we ay not look up to all celebrities and sport figures most of them can have a very positive influence on our lives. L. Introduction A.

Thesis: Sports figures and celebrities have always been highly looked at as role models in America today through their accomplishments and strong star power influence they have on people. II. Body Paragraph 1 A role model is a person who displays characteristics that others look up to and want to immolate in their day to day lives. In the twenty first century Mass media portrays two different types of role models. A. Supporting Evidence – in the journal writing by Brace-Gavin,” More diversity than liberty: A typology of role model interaction. ” They talk about the two types of role models.

They say there is the role model that excels in life and is almost perfect in every aspect and the second role model that is often identified as human in the way that they have risen to fame but in one way or another fell from stardom do to a drug problem yet made a comeback do to rehab or some other help. Ill. Body paragraph 2 Sports figures and celebrities are often looked at as role models. The way the media portrays these lager then life people often determines who we choose and why we choose certain people as our role models. A. Supporting Evidence- In “Pickup, C. , & Pester, G. (1999). Old like to be like her/him: Are athletes role-models for boys and girls? ” and “Read, B. (2011 Brittany, Beyond, and me – primary school girls’ role models and constructions of the ‘popular’ girl. ” it talks about what it takes for someone to look up to another person of high stature. They way someone is in everyday life and their accomplishments makes us normal people look up to them. They state that there are certain things everyone looks for weather it be their looks or how many home runs they hit last year. IV. Body Paragraph 3 eel like people should look up to people for who they really are.

I don’t think just because you are famous that makes you a role model. A. Supporting Evidence- in the first few sentences of “Lawyer, P. (2010). Celebrity Studies Today. Society, 47(5), 419. DOI:10. 1007/asses 5-010-9353-t’ he goes to say that being famous doesn’t make you someone to look up to. You have to be famous and use your talents and influence for the good not for personal use. A perfect example of a Sport figures role model is Derek Jester. He is someone who you could look up to and see all the great things he does on the field and off the field. V.

Conclusion A role model can be defined as a person who is looked up to and a prime example of what another wants to be like. Should sport figures and celebrities be looked at as role models that are for you to decide. There are two types of role models and in my opinion you have to make the right choices to decide which one you want to look up to Given what we look for in society today many celebrities and sports figures can be looked at as great role models, yet the media like to talk about their flaws and mistakes. We as people need to look past that and decide for ourselves who we want to be and look up to.

Marketing Plan For Sony Xperia Smartphone Final essay

Thus, a comprehensive of understanding consumers’ needs is essential in marketing of Sony Expatriate smartened. A market analysis being conducted by examining the segmentation of geographical (Penman) and demographical such as age (16-36 years old), gender, income and profession executive, manager, businessman). From the survey, it showed less popularity of Sony smartened among target audience compared to other competitors. Lack of brand awareness and wide varieties of smartened offering in market are considered the main reasons that contribute to the failure. 2. 1. Market Needs Smartened market becoming even more challenging, especially with wide selections of smartness from competitors. Sony emphasizes the market needs in order to win the heart and mind of consumers. Communicate to the world Today, communication is not limited to voice calling or text messaging, nonusers are demanding in perspective of online social networking, for example Backbone, Watchstrap, and Keep to ensure they are always connected to the world. High Quality and Reliable Smartened Consumers learn to appreciate quality difference and reliability of smartened.

They require durable smartened with power saving high performance and good camera quality. Value-based Pricing People becoming more price sensitive due to wide selections of smartened with all the features comparable, mainly from China smartened. To be impressive, added value to the product in tangible ways helps to reduce price sensitivity. . 1. 2 Market Trends The market trend for smartened is headed towards innovative technology, lifestyles and social participation. Consumers always looking forward on what is the next technology that is going to fulfill their curiosity and excitements.

Quality and Innovative Smartened Future smartened technology will not restrained and will definitely surpassed today’s technology. Consumers are expecting more technological breakthrough of smartened in features such as designs, hardware and software. Lifestyle and Social Participation Consumers’ buying behavior are very highly dependent on social factor, for example word of mouth by friends and family or opinion leader. Also, consumers being influenced to buy a smartened which can personify them into different social group and up-to-date lifestyle.

Environmental Friendly Technology Tech-savvy consumers are cautious about environmental issues surrounding us and they would make contribution to practice green living by supporting echo-friendly smartened program such as battery recycling, packaging and others. 2. 1. 3 Market Growth Smartened market expected to grow steadily in Malaysia but with slower speed. Based on Nielsen, smartened penetration in Malaysia hits 80%, indicates smartened product life cycle almost reach the Stage of maturity.

For this reason, Sony requires different marketing strategy for different life cycle stage to increase market growth. Figure 1 Smartened Penetration in Global 2. 2 SOOT Analysis In view of strength, Sony Sappier’;’ premium smartened offers 20. AMP camera that captures High-Dynamic-Range (HAD) images, incredible battery life of amah (up to 2 days), and dust-and waterproof design with IPPP rating. These will be the persuasive advantages that attract those consumer who love to “self” and photo shooting or recording to try the product.

However, Sony does not possess strong brand equity in smartened market due to its inability to differentiate its feature or offerings from other competitors. The unclear target segmentation which does not target potential buyers fails to gain the brand awareness among consumer. Sony weak customer relationship management and advertisement on wrong features also fails to attract prospect buyer. Looking at the bright side, Sony Malaysia’s GAP growth in 2014 will leads smartened sales to grow with increased purchasing power.

Android SO platform captured the biggest SO market hare, and Sony smartened will able to exploit the technology trend and continue to shine. Furthermore, online shopping or E-commerce becoming popular among shoppers in Malaysia, thus Sony should take advantage on the online selling approach to increase sales. Nevertheless, Sony encountered stiff price war from China smartened which offer comparable features at lower price. Besides, strong marketing strategy from competitors and competition with other smartness which are sharing the same SO platform indirectly put Sony into a losing situation.

Figure 2 SOOT Analysis Figure 3 Malaysia GAP Growth Rate 2. Competition and Product Comparison A study on premium smartness category of Sony Expert”;’ Z, Phones, Samsung Galaxy SO, and Hawaii Ascend UP features was conducted. Sony smartened offers the highest quality camera with 20. 7 Misapplies, highest RAM KGB and largest battery life amah among other models. On top of the advantages, Sony smartened is slightly heavier than other models due to big display size. Overall, Sony smartness features are still comparable with other models in market at reasonable price. 2. Key Success Factors To be successful, Sony has to increase brand awareness of its smartened treasures among consumers by actively participate in promotional activities through advertisement in magazines, social media and offer valuable pricing to attract consumers. For long term growth strategy, Sony need to enhance customer satisfaction by providing excellent customer service and be innovative in future smartened development to fulfill expectations from consumers on latest technology breakthrough. 2. 5 Critical Issue and Environmental Factors There are few critical issues being identified in marketing of Sony Expired smartness.

The growth of smartened market has slowly move into the maturity of the product life cycle. To address this issue, Sony has to restructure the stage from maturity to product extension. Sony faced aggressive price war from China smartness which successfully gain substantial market share in such short period. Hence, Sony has to be extra careful upon deciding the pricing for its offering. Besides, Sonny’s inability to market its brand and lead the technological changes also failed to gain the brand recognition from consumer.

In addition, rapid changes on the technology required Sony to invest heavily on Research & Development to achieve position of technology market leader. Figure 4 Product Life Cycle The macro-environment factors Of technological (watch the technological changes thoughtfully and emphasized on new product development), economic (consider buying power and spending patterns of target segment) and social/cultural (understand the behaviors, preferences and lifestyles of target segment) are likely to affect Sony marketing operations.

In micro- environment perspective, factors such as competitor (monitor competitors closely) and demography (study market needs, forecast market trend and consumption) are the main contributors that will impact the marketing strategies. 3. 0 Marketing Strategies 3. 1 Vision & Mission Sony Mobile vision is to be recognized as a company that brings the intelligence of technology that inspires consumer’s curiosity. To achieve the vision, Sony Mobile create a mission to develop innovative technology solutions that bring new experiences to consumer and strive the business to success. 3. Marketing Objectives To gain 70% of brand awareness level among targeted market within 6 months Of marketing period in Penman. Established strong and positive brand image of high quality smartened provider within a year of marketing period. To achieve Sony Xavier units sales volume of 35,000 during first year in Malaysia. 3. Financial Objectives To increase annual sales revenue of 30% from the current within a year of marketing period. To achieve an annual ROI of Sony Expertњ smartened at 20% within 2 years. To grow the earnings per share of Sony Corporation 10% annually. 3. Target Market According to Real Estate Research Malaysia, 50% population in Penman is being in the middle income group. The primary target market of Sony Expatriate smartened is the middle income group with monthly salary of ARM,001 – ARM,000, who desires all-in-one device which allow they send urgent work emails, connected with friends and family, and entertainment purpose. A secondary target segment is the young adults, aged 16-25 years old, who are early adopters and likely to use new product or technology before others as they are curious with the latest technological solutions. . 5 Positioning Sony Expertise will position itself based on high quality, value priced and world’s best camera smartened provider. Sonny’s target segments will recognize the value, excitement and outstanding offerings by Sony Expired smartened and this will lead Sony to success. 3. 6 Marketing Strategies Sony Sappier’;’ marketing mix comprised of following strategies to product, price, place promotion and people. -6. 1 Product Strategy Product strategy is used in marketing to identify Sony Xavier roadman to achieve its objectives.

By applying product differentiation strategy, Sony Expert”‘ smartened offers the premium design, excellent camera quality and highest waterproof rating. Today, Sony Expatriate outstanding camera quality with 20. 7 Misapplies Exxon R Sensor for image processing is currently leading other competitors in the market. With such camera quality as good as Sony digital camera, consumers who enjoy taking beautiful photos and videos will eventually shift their focus from other brands to Sony Expired.

According to The Star Online Malaysia (April 201 4), Penman was ranked 10th ‘silliest’ cities in the world, where young adults actively taking photos of their daily life and upload into Backbone or Mainstream. Looking into this, Sony Expired can capitalize its good camera quality leadership, exploit the current market trend Of “self” and be branded as the world’s best camera in a waterproof smartened. Besides, Sony Expired supports the Palpitations (SSW) Remote using Wife network whereby it allow consumer to play ASS games remotely using the smartened attached to the console anywhere in the mom.

Consumer no longer fight for TV for gaming or entertainment purpose. Hence, the product bundling combining both Experiment’ and ASS”‘ for sell will create added value to target market and this will help to increase Sony overall revenues. To accommodate different expectations from target market, Sony can design a built-it-yourself modular smartened which allow consumer to customize component modules/blocks (such as camera, RAM, and battery) and styles of phone casing according to their preference and lifestyle instead of buying a smartened with pre-defined components by manufacturers.

Through customization, consumer do not have to overpay and compromise for features that they do not want. Based on study conducted by Forrester Research, more than 35% of US online consumers are interested in customizing their own product features. Thus, the smartened customization will allow tech savvy consumers to participate in the product design and this will wins their loyalty and lead to greater market share.

For long term growth, Sony Expert”;’ must not focus on the camera quality leadership as the only competitive advantage, but to improve its existing smartened features to increase market share. For this reason, Sony could spend more revenues in Research & Development to explore environmental friendly solution for smartened charging, by designing another alternative that uses renewable energy to charge smartened on top of conventional way Of phone charging today, where this features still remain untapped by other competitors.

For example, a device that uses heat transfer and converts to thermal energy that used to charge the smartened. According to a report published by EIA World Energy Outlook, the renewable energy consumption will continue to increase in future and, Sony can be the market pioneer for genealogical leadership in using renewable energy for smartened charging. 3. 6. 2 price strategy price strategy is important for Sony to generate more revenues and maximize profits.

Looking at current pricing strategy for premium smartness, the retail price for Sony Expatriate Z is ARM,399 which may appear costly to target market that do not possess high purchasing power. Discount pricing is recommended by reducing the price to attract more consumers to increase sales and gain more market share. For example, Sony can offer both staff price and corporate discount of 30% to all Sony employees and manufacturing companies (Intel, Dell, Motorola), and participate in banks’ credit card affiliation program where card holders are entitled of discount upon payment.

Also, Sony can offers purchase with purchase (POP) program combining Expertise (premium) and STEPS where consumers get 30% discount for Sony Expertњ if they bought Sony It is recommended to sell at reasonable price of ARM,299 which will attract consumer to try both products. The discount pricing may initially not generating more revenues, but the intention is to generate word of mouth to raise awareness and attract new customers to try the product.

Table 1 Discounted Pricing List With respect to stiff price war and strong marketing strategy from other competitors, Sony Expert”‘ is highly recommended to price its smartened upon value pricing strategy. In reality, consumers want a good smartness without overpay. With increasing competition, majority smartness in market will comprise almost similar technology and features, thus, value pricing is the factor that is going to influence consumers buying decision. In previous survey, it showed that majority consumer’s budget for purchasing a smartened ranged from ARMOR -? RMI ,999. Hence, the value pricing of Sony

Expert”;’ being set in this marketing plan will range from ARMOR – RMI ,699 and will successfully fulfill the budget and expectation of consumer. Unlike Apple where it has only one product with costly pricing that not many people afford to buy and this caused Apple to lose its market share. Table 2 Proposed value pricing for customizable features smartened 3. 6. 3 Place Strategy Place tells how a company distribute a product so that it can be reach by consumer. Currently, Sony is deploying the exclusive distribution through retailer (Sony Centre) and network operator companies (Dig and Maxis) in shopping malls.

However, the location of some Sony Centre in Penman is not strategic and fail to invite sales. Thus, it is advisable that Sony Centre should be located strategically in central of the shopping malls so that it is easily reached by consumer and provide the opportunity to consumer to touch and feel the physical product. Also, by referring to Apple and Axiom, Sony can practice direct marketing of zero level channel through Internet selling. Nowadays, there is increasing trend in online shopping as it brings convenience to consumers where they can just click on the “Pay” button anywhere and anytime to purchase a product.

By using Internet selling, Sony can save the cost of intermediaries which will increase the operating profit. Figure 5 Malaysia online shopping rising 3. 6. 4 Promotion Strategy Promotion strategy will discussed how Sony communicates the products features and values to the consumer. 3. 6. 4. 1 Advertising Advertising is used to communicate a product offerings and values and build brand awareness in market. Nevertheless, Sony is not doing well on advertising its product features and fail in positioning the product to target market. Hence, advertising in Stuff magazine and online social media like

Sony official website and Backbone page are strongly suggested to convey informative and persuasive message closer to consumers where they can easily look for the product specifications, features and price. Besides, cinema advertisement, for example Golden Screen Cinema (Gurney Plaza and Queensland Mall) is highly recommended because that’s the time where consumer feels relax and easily absorb the message that delivered by the advertisement. According to Valerian Cinema Network, cinema advertising is proven to increase propensity to buy a product.

Figure 6 Cinema Advertising Increase Propensity of Purchase 3. . 4. 2 Sales Promotion Sales promotion is useful to stimulate rapid increases in sales. Unfortunately, the sales promotion activities in Penman were not eye-catching to grab consumer attention. It is recommended that Sony frequently organize special event pricing such as Year End sales and Festival sales promotion with attractive free gifts (for instance, Sony artist concert PIP tickets) and lucky draw participation to win free trips during the promotional period.

Besides, Sony can promote smartened recycling campaign where consumer is entitled to purchase Sony smartness with trade in discount while the national parts of Old phones can still be reconstruct and reused in the supply chain activities. Through this program, Sony reduces electronic waste (e-waste), build a good corporate image of practicing green living and attract consumer to try its product. 3. 6. 4. Personal Selling Personal selling delivers the product information through communication between salesperson and consumer. There are less promotional activities held in Penman, therefore consumers not even aware of Sony Expertise features or new product released. In this case, Sony can do better in participating PC Expo fair which held quarterly in SPICE (PISA) Penman, held read shows in shopping malls (Gurney Plaza and Queensland Mall) and manufacturing companies (Intel, Motorola and Dell) to promote its smartness to consumer.

In the event, Sony can organize Guess & Win contest that enlighten consumer about Sonny’s product knowledge, demonstrate its waterproof features by putting the smartened into water and high quality camera feature. These involves customer engagement to touch and feel the product and increase the brand awareness among consumer. 3. 6. 5 People Strategy The people discussed in this section refers to the employees that involved in he business operation such as customer service and salesperson. Today, excellent customer service is one of the formula for success in a company.

Consumers are more educated and aware of their rights. Thus, the quality of customer service on how they deal with customers in efficient timely manner is vital to maintain strong brand of services. Our survey discovered that the Sony salesperson do not perform their duty well in promoting the product to customers and fail to achieve sales. In view of salesperson, they need to recruit people who is fanatic about Sony Expired as it’s more likely they will reform better to convince potential customer on the product offerings.

Identification Of Learning Barriers Affecting English essay

In Thailand, as acknowledged in the literature, learners of English as a second language often experience considerable difficulties with reading. There are many reasons for this, but, given the importance of reading to the development of language proficiency, it is of great importance to identify ways in which student learning can be enhanced. This paper reports on a project that sought to obtain specific information from Thai undergraduate students about their experiences when undertaking formal reading classes in a higher education institution.

The study was part of a larger project to identify ways in which student learning could be enhanced. It involved the application of focus group techniques to elicit information about students’ experience of the reading classroom in Thailand. The findings indicated that while students appeared to be motivated to develop their English language reading comprehension, they experienced barriers to learning which included an educational approach which did not foster independence and autonomy; materials that were not always engaging and a classroom environment which was not optimally conducive to learning.

Keywords: Reading comprehension, English language INTRODUCTION Reading comprehension can be described as the interpretation and evaluation of a written text in order to ascertain the message of the writer (Bond et a’, 1989); and facility in it has long been recognized as an essential skill which second language learners need to acquire if they are to attain mastery of the language that they are learning.

The construct of reading comprehension is, however, a complex phenomenon which involves psycholinguistic factors which relate to schemata and text processing (Grabber & Stroller, 2002); linguistic and sociolinguistic factors, which also include an understanding of pragmatics and discourse organization; and a knowledge of a particular range of reading strategies (Kodak, 2004) including the active utilization of background knowledge (West;DOD, 2003).

Comprehension is achieved by the bottom up approaches of decoding at word, phrase and sentence level as well as the top down approaches of predicting content and drawing on existing schemata to create meaning (Anderson, 2003). As issues connected with any one of these factors can impact on a student’s facility in reading comprehension, it is important that they should all be addressed in the reading classroom.

The study described below therefore sought to elicit data to discover the extent to which this appeared to be taking place. Numerous studies, including those from Thailand (e. G. Intranet, 2004; Performer, 1 993; Consultation, Crankshaft & Kankakee, 2002), have indicated that attaining facility in second 97 language reading comprehension can be a problematic process and that many learners experience considerable difficulties in developing their expertise in reading.

The reasons for this are numerous and include issues with first language reading ability, low level decoding skills, lack of cultural knowledge of the material, lack of motivation to learn, lack of diversity in teaching materials, overconfidence on the teacher and a concomitant lack of learner autonomy, lack of opportunities to read and inadequate exposure to reading materials. Classroom pedagogies can also impact on reading comprehension (Neutral, 2005).

Having identified the issues as presented in the literature, the study described in this paper sought to identify which, if any, of them might apply in the context of the Thai university being investigated. It follows from the above that activities which will encourage students to evolve their full reading potential will involve the facilitation of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, the development of learner autonomy and engaging forms of instruction.

Intrinsic motivation has been described as the sense of satisfaction which learners obtain from their performance and extrinsic motivation as factors which encourage participation in the classroom (Decide et al, 1991). Autonomous learning also known as self-directed or independent learning (Seeking, 2007: 1 1 2), can be described as the capacity of learners to manage and self-monitor their learning processes (Abdullah, 2001).

Given the range of factors described above which can impact on the development of student reading proficiency, it is of great importance to identify specific ways in which student learning can be enhanced. THE STUDY The study was a preliminary investigation intended to inform the production of a subsequent survey instrument to be administered to a large cohort of participants to address this issue of how student learning in reading instruction classes in Thailand could be enhanced.

The preliminary investigation described in this paper took the form of a group interview or Ochs group conducted with nine learners from four different English language classes at one Thai university. The participants were broadly similar in terms of their English language levels, educational experience and age since groups that are relatively homogeneous are more productive and -?work better”‘ (Stewart, Shamanic & Rook, 2007: 10).

They were also drawn from the population to which the final survey instrument would be administered. The focus group interview was deliberately selected because of its particular properties of entailing communal discussion. It was believed hat the interaction of the members of the group would generate a depth of data through the synergies of the group that would not necessarily be elicited in individual interviews; the data which emerged would then be used to assist in the development of the main survey instrument to follow.

A discussion guide, comprising a total of thirteen open ended questions, had been prepared prior to the session, with the intention of eliciting information about students’ attitudes to reading as an activity in both Thai and English, their views of and frequency of reading outside the classroom environment, their experience of English reading textbooks used in their classes, and the issues they had personally experienced with regard to reading in English, their learning environments and their English instruction.

The process was facilitated by the researcher, whose goal was to ensure that the group encouraged participants _to share perceptions and points of view, without pressuring participants to vote or reach consensus’ (Krueger & Casey, 2000: 5). Participants were made to feel at ease through an icebreakers activity and the provision of refreshments, and assured that confidentiality would be maintained and their anomie’ guaranteed in reports.

The session was recorded in two ways, as recommended by Bertrand, Brown & Ward (1992), to ensure completeness of the data obtained: through a reporter, who took notes but did not participate in the study, and, after obtaining permission for its use from the participants, through a sound recording device. The presence of the note-taker permitted the recording of paralinguistic features such as body language and provided a source of triangulation for the researcher’s impressions of the direction of the discussion, thus _ supplementing the oral ext and enabling a fuller analysis of the data’ (Rabies, 2004: 656).

To achieve this, the researcher and notepaper engaged in a debriefing session immediately following the focus group session, as recommended by Krueger and Casey (2000). The researcher transcribed the interviews, which were held in Thai and 98 subsequently translated into English. In order to minimize researcher bias and to ensure the greatest accuracy of the translation, a second translator with expertise in the teaching of English to Thai students was also us abstinently used.

While precautions were taken to reduce the impact of the researcher on the ATA, it is nevertheless acknowledged that it is a characteristic of qualitative research of this type that it involves the construction of the data by both the researcher and the participants (Carbon & Strauss, 1990), and that any kind of research that is based on spoken genres means that _utterances are always preceded by and followed by other utterances that help constitute the meaning of the utterance in focus’ (Mêlées, 2005: 24).

There is, therefore, us objectivity involved in the development of the interaction and the linguistic output, as well as in the subsequent analysis. For this reason, _configurability, o use the term adopted by Lincoln and Cuba (1985) in their seminal work on qualitative research, is an essential component of the qualitative approach.

For this study steps were taken to establish configurability within the focus group through the use of both oral and written recordings of proceedings, through the presence of both the researcher and note-taker in the actual session, both of whom contributed to the data to be analyses, through the use of two translators Of the recorded data from Thai to English, through the contribution of a second researcher at the data analysis stage, and through he use of rigorous data analysis processes.

The questions presented to the participants moved through the following stages: (a) general questions about participants’ general reading habits, asked in order to elicit data on intrinsic motivation to read; (b) questions about the participants’ English language classes, including those related to pedagogy, tasks, materials and environment, asked to elicit data about participants’ classroom experience; (c) questions about any difficulties experienced by participants in their classes, asked to elicit data about possible barriers to earning; (d) a final question about how reading classes could be improved, asked to elicit data that would inform the next stage of the research.

The data analysis process followed the steps identified by De Wet & Erasmus (2005): a close reading of the data, a summarizing coding process, the identification of _clusters and hierarchies of information’ (De Wet & Erasmus, 2005: 33), and the identification of relationships, patterns and explanations. The first stage involved an unusually intensive engagement with the data, because the main researcher not only transcribed the recording but acted as one of the renovators of the material from Thai into English. This involved close examination Of each word, phrase and sentence to best capture in translation language which it was believed represented the intended meaning of each speaker. From this detailed reading (involving the transcripts in both languages) the first preliminary ideas emerged.

The second stage involved separating out the data and reducing it into categories. For this step two different approaches were used: a color-coding process conducted on an intact transcript, and an electronic version of the standard *cut and paste’ technique, in which phrases, sentences or arcographs were organized into groups according to theme, a process which was continued until the entire text had been exhausted. Using this procedure, the data were organized primarily into a set of descriptive contrasting dyads which reflected the positive and negative comments participants had made about reading in general, reading in English and reading in the classroom.

At the third stage, the data within each of the categories were summarized and grouped according to the overarching issues that had been identified, so that the process of explaining the data could begin. FINDINGS The initial questions had sought to establish whether these particular students were intrinsically motivated to read at all, and if so, what kinds of texts they found most appealing. In a world in which young people have instant access to multiple forms of information through a range of media, it was considered possible that reading per SE might not be seen as an appealing exercise. However, there was a general consensus in the group that reading was an enjoyable activity, with only one participant 99 expressing any reservations.

Group members were, it appeared, intrinsically motivated to read. Specifically, enjoyment was gained from the topic if it was related to the reader’s own interests. Travel, health, sport, beauty tips and general knowledge were identified as particular topics of interest; politics, on the contrary, was considered one to avoid. In addition, enjoyment came from the capacity of reading material to draw the reader into a new world or to induce the trance like state identified by Nell (1988) participant 4 commented: II [it seems like I travel with the author when I read it] and from the capacity of reading texts to develop the reader’s imagination. Novels such as the Harry

Potter series and Lord of the Rings were described as examples of the kind of literature that was appealing. When it came to reading in English, all those participants who commented indicated that they were also intrinsically highly motivated to read for enjoyment, the word =fun’ being used by many of the participants. Bushman & en’s (1999) suggest that there are two dimensions for motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic goals, and immediate versus future goals. Among the group members involved in the focus group study, in addition to the immediate pleasure gained from reading there seemed among some of the participants o be a sense of future oriented motivation.

Most were aware of the value to their everyday lives of having strongly developed English skills, to which reading would contribute; one mentioning that English was the language of computers and another that English was the language of instructions in mobile phones. One participant made a direct connection between English and her future career goal, which was -?to be an ambassador” (participant 3). The ability to communicate in English was valued by participants particularly as they were able to experience it in their daily lives as an immediate need. For example, participant 2 was concerned that -?we might be asked for directions by foreign visitors”, and participants 2 and 9 commented on the need to be able to understand song lyrics.

The connection between reading and the development of English language proficiency more generally was one which was frequently observed, and appeared to be a factor that motivated their desire to read. In particular, four of the participants made reference to reading as a source of new vocabulary which could then be applied in daily life, and three to the availability of texts which were written dialogues that old authentically be used in actual situations, particularly in conversation with foreigners. One participant (participant 9) referred to his friends and family members as being -?huh arrange knock – which can loosely be translated as fanatical about sweaters’ culture.

As the participant was an English major he was often approached to provide translations of cartoons and song lyrics. In fact, encouragement of the participants by family and friends, whether implicit or overt, appeared to play a role in promoting learning. One participant’s parents, for example, bought her English language newspapers; he same participant watched the television news on an English language channel in Thailand. Another participant watched films with English soundtracks with an aunt and uncle. When questioned about how they addressed the difficulties they experienced with reading in English, several participants responded that they asked their parents or friends.

One participant had foreign friends who were consulted because they were also able to speak some Thai. Nevertheless, in spite of the availability fifths support, on the whole the participants did not engage in much deliberate reading in English outside the classroom for its own sake; where they were exposed to English language texts it tended to be incidental or instrumental, for example through advertising billboards, cell phone instructions and computer software. The classroom experience Of the participants was another key area explored in the focus group, generating comments on both pedagogy and the experience of learning English through reading.

A recurring comment was that participants felt discouraged when confronted by texts which contained too much vocabulary that was unfamiliar or had not been internalized, even if it had been previously presented to them in their classes. Additionally, as artificial 7 pointed out: sometime words have 100 _one meaning in one context and have a different meaning in another context. Idioms, too, caused difficulties, particularly when they could not be directly translated. Other comments seemed to indicate that some of the texts used in the classroom did not align with students’ schemata: one participant complained about what appeared to be an inexplicable and incomprehensible use of abbreviations, and another about the use of italic script for emphasis rather than a bold typeface.

The absence of a familiar schema can act as a barrier to comprehension (Carrel, 1 987; Irwin 1 991) and would therefore be an important consideration when classroom texts are selected. The participants’ comments may also have been an indirect comment on the pedagogical approaches used in the classroom. First, it might indicate that students were being presented with material that was set at a level too high for their capabilities. The concept of _comprehensible input’ (Crasher, 1981), which argues that optimal input for language learners should consist of content that is just beyond the learner’s current level, has been broadly accepted by language teaching professionals as a valid approach for over twenty-five years.

Second, it seemed from these and subsequent comments that students had not been made aware of any strategies they could use to address their difficulties with vocabulary, other than those which least promoted self sufficiency and autonomy: most who offered an opinion commented that they used their dictionaries or asked those around them in order to find out the meaning. Only one suggested that by continuing to read beyond an unknown word the meaning of that word might become clear. Participants’ attitudes towards particular texts were also influenced by the format and genre in which they were presented. Illustrated texts and cartoons were identified for particular comment, because they were, as participant 1 put it, -?fun and relaxing”.

This was not an unexpected finding, given the importance of visual presentation in much of the media available today. Participants were not motivated to read materials that comprised dense text, were not illustrated, or were not in color. As participant 5 commented: -?it is boring to read the textbook that is black and white and has no illustrations. If the book had some illustrated pictures and was colorful, I would feel like I was reading a magazine. It would be more attractive to study. Such a viewpoint was reiterated by others at various stages of the focus group interview and appeared to be a key source of dissatisfaction, when it was expressed, with some Of the instructional materials they were issued.

This also extended to the types of font used, some of which appeared to be difficult to read. The use of italics came in for particular criticism, bold or highlighted text being a preferred way of indicating emphasis. At the same time, there was some diversity of opinion. Participant 1 , for example, stated: -?the book used in my class is quite good. There are some illustrated pictures which help me capture the main idea”. This, along with other, similar, comments, indicated that the types of materials used varied between classes, even though there was a set textbook. One aspect of the participants’ commentary on the materials they used was their selection of expressions to describe what they did with the texts.

The participants’ choice of verbs of obligation reinforced the fact that the materials were imposed on them and implied a lack of engagement or ownership of the process. For example, comments included: -?we read in groups… Everyone had to read it] (participant 5); -?the teacher usually assigned us to read the news, and then we had to present and summaries… II (participant 6); -?you had to answer the questions about what was going on in the text] (participant 1). As might be expected in any language teaching institution, the activities used in the reading classes varied and some teachers appeared to manage their classes and hold their students’ interest more effectively than others.

Tasks included reading in groups, reading to the class, summarizing texts, conducting role plays (particularly where the texts were written transcripts of oral interaction), and playing games. Computer assisted language learning (CALL) did not play a part in the classes Of any of the participants; something, according to their comments, which they would have found beneficial. This omission is surprising, given the Thai Government’s promotion of technology in education (Office of the National Education Commission, 2003), the ubiquity of computers as an educational tool, and the growing body of literature that identifies CALL as a promoting positive attitudes to 101 language learning (e. G. Levy, 1997; Lieu, Moore, Graham & Lee, 2002).

With the exception of their identification of this particular educational aid, however, when they were asked to identify ways in which their classroom reading experience might be improved participants did not focus primarily on the kinds of activities they would like to undertake, but on the teachers and teaching approaches (e. G. The desire to have a single teacher over an extended period of time, the desirability of having only English spoken in the classrooms, the benefits of having _ native speakers’ of English as teachers) and on the materials. With regard to classroom management, one particular issue identified was he disruption caused by students who were inattentive and talked among themselves. In Thai classes there can be as many as 50 students, so for some of the participants disruption Was a major source of disquiet simply because of the noise generated – one participant even stated: -?my friends are very noisy in class.

They psychologically harass meal (participant 9). The same participant went on to describe her experience of studying as -?miserable” because of the glamour made by her classmates. The experience was not universally shared, however, as some participants observed. In general, the laity of the experience in this regard appeared to depend on the ability of the teacher to manage the learning environment, as most participants related the noise levels, either directly or indirectly, to the teacher’s level of control.