In captive, few pythons have survived thou food for more than two to two and half years. As such they are very contented species & they eat only when it’s required, but do need lot of water, as 70 % of their body weight is constituted of water, it is essential for their survival. In case of scarcity of water they use body fluid in their prey to satisfy their water need. Because of their ability to camouflage with surrounding, we don’t see snakes very often though they are available in plenty around us. Due to the absence of sweat glands, snakes discard their external skin regularly to get rid of waste products from body.
The process is called “molting” & for adult snake it repeats in 2-3 months. For young one’s the change over period is smaller. New born shed their 1 SST skin in 2 days. After molting snake gets back its fresh & glowing look. The scales on snake’s body keep their skin dry. Scales protect snakes from ultraviolet & infrared rays. It’s the main means to assist their movement. As sea snake does not have scales they are not able to move on land. Snakes have their own tactics to protect themselves. Normally they hide or camouflage themselves and try not to have any face to face confrontation with intruder.
But occasionally if such incident occurs they prefer to flee, sometimes they display their anger by making frightening hissing sound or displaying hood in case of cobra, some make their body or neck flat, take attacking posture & make pseudo bites. Sometimes they even encircle & lie down as if they are dead. If caught, then they secrete foul smell or waste or even omit. In case no option left, they attack & bite. Its important to note that, they do not have any well planned game plan or revenge feeling when they bite humans. All snakes have eyes, tongue, skin, teeth, tail etc. Certain snakes like Python,
Bamboo Pit Viper are having thermo receptor pits. These are situated in between eyes & nostrils. Snakes do not have external ears, hence they cannot hear, they can sense mechanical vibrations through their body which reach to them from ground on which they are resting. Snakes have monocular vision except few species like Cobra, Vine snake etc. Tree dwelling snakes have bigger eyes & better eye sight compare to other snakes. Most of the diurnal snakes which are active in day time have round & bigger eye pupil whereas nocturnal snakes have vertical pupil. The opening is adjusted as per the rightness of light in surroundings.
Snakes do not have eye lids & the protection of eye is taken care by transparent membrane. It is a common misconception that snakes move very fast. On contrary the average speed does not exceed 7 SMS/her & highest possible speed is around 12 to 15 SMS/her by African Black Mamba. The snake has long slender tongue divided at tip, it has inbuilt capability to pick up dour all around & make it reach to Jacobson organ situated in upper jaw. For this purpose tongue is always kept little wet. The small slot is available in top & bottom lip, even when they are tightly closed. This facilitates tongue movement without opening mouth.
The calculation of tongue varies with snakes & their habitation. It IS certain that tongue is used more than the nostrils itself, in case of snakes to detect the dour. Some snakes use their tail or tongue to lure their prey. Classification of the snakes: Snakes can be classified based on the shapes of their head, tail, scales, eye pupil, body shapes & length, movement style, place of dwelling/habitat, breeding behavior, food habits (prey), etc. But main classification can be made based on their capacity to produce venom. This categorization is very important for common people, as their bite can endanger human life.
On these grounds there are three main types: 1 . Non Venomous Snake: These snakes do not possess venom glands or fangs. Their teeth are curved inwards to grasp & push the prey inside mouth. Their bite does not endanger human life. Biz. Keel back, Rat snake, Python, Boa, Trinket, Racer etc. 2. Semi venomous snakes: These snakes do have mild venom & fangs located at the back or front of the upper jaw but quantity & quality of the venom is just enough to unconscious or kill the prey. The effect on human being is not severe. Its bite does not endanger human life. Biz. Vine Snake, Ornate Flying Snake, Cat Snake, Sand Snake etc.
Both the above categories of snakes are available in plenty and are killed because of our lack of knowledge & mostly irrational fear about them. 3. Venomous Snake: Venomous snakes have venom glands connected internally to fangs, which deliver venom to preys body during bite of these snakes. Venom makes prey unconscious or sometimes kill instantaneously & as a latter effect dissolves the prey to smoothen its digestion. Venom of these snakes is harmful, toxic to human body system and can kill human beings in he absence of proper medication. Biz. Cobra, Karat Viper, Sea Snakes etc. Snakes can be further categorized based on their habitat.
Worm Snakes, Sand Boa, Shield Tail burrow themselves under ground. Vine Snakes, Bamboo Pit Viper, Bronze Back, Ornate Flying Snake dwell on tree. Keel backs, Sea snakes are found in water, whereas Stripped Keel back, Rat Snakes, Python prefer humid, dark, bushes on land. Karat, Cobra captures other’s hole or burrow. The snakes which are active in day time are diurnal snakes and their eye pupils are round. Biz. Rat snakes. The snakes active during right time are actuarial Biz. Cat snakes, and their eye pupils are vertical, whereas Vine snake is exception to all these and having special feature of horizontal eye pupil.
Snakes have two methodology of reproduction, some reproved cue by giving birth to young one’s directly (Vivo-viviparous) Biz. Viper, Vine Snake, Boa etc. Or few variety of them lay egg (Oviparous) Biz. Cobra, Karat, Python, Rat Snake, etc. Which hatch after incubation 5 period. Some new born have egg tooth to break open the egg cover. Some of the female take care of eggs till they hatch. To extreme case King Cobra female builds even nest for her eggs. Snakes also can be categorized based on their tech unique to move. Long, slender bodied snake like Rat snake, Cobra, make ‘S’ like body shape while they move.
Whereas Python, Russell viper lift up their middle portion of body & move forward. Saw Scaled viper or some desert snake move by side winding. Snakes feed themselves on variety of non vegetarian food I. E. Toads, rats, mice, geckos, frogs, lizards, birds, insects, fishes, eggs etc. Few of them like Karat, King Cobra eat their own breeds also. Snakes do have lot Of enemy; there are few species which feed themselves on snakes egg. Owl, peacock, kite, eagle, hawk, mongoose, etc. But human beings are their worst and most powerful enemies.
Lack of true, scientific information, many MIS-beliefs, unknown fear and self-centered, money minded businesses by human beings are the reasons for snake killing. Usefulness of snakes / Why & How snakes are important ? Rat like species and similar grass dwelling insects damage farming lot. Rat alone can eat or spoil around 25-30% of domestic farm / Agricultural products. The fact has been confirmed by many Nature scientists & Nature lovers like Dry. Salami All. Snakes feed themselves on rats. Rats have erroneous reproduction rate. One pair of them can give birth to 850 young one’s per year.
Single Rat snake eats hundreds of rats per year. Snakes also help us in reducing other grass dwelling insects & mosquito which are troublesome to our health & cause nuisance to our surrounding. Snakes are better & effective means to catch or kill the rats and insects, than using man made traps and techniques. Thus snakes are important element food chain and indirectly help lot, to maintain CEO-balance. Further, the snake venom is a useful material. It contains many other valuable elements along with few toxic absences. These useful elements are separated and used in many of medicines.
Hemorrhages, mainly in the ovaries, eye pupil are treated by using Russell Viper’s venom, as it has got ability to clot the blood. Similarly, Cobra venom is used in medicine which acts as severe pain killer for arthritis, asthma, etc. Last but not the least, snake venom is used to manufacture anti snake venom injections. These CSV’s are the only effective & assured means to treat the venomous snake bite. Snake myths & facts (General) In today’s date also, most of the well known, prevailing things about snakes re based on imaginative folk tales & ancestral religious stories. The truth or scientific information is still missing among masses.
This fact is applicable to all aspects like snake bite, their temperament (wickedness), habitats & off course remedies on snake bites. The paradox is that, in some of Asian countries including India, there are snake temples, people worship snakes on particular day but due to lack of right information & fear they also kill snakes brutally, whether it’s venomous or non venomous. Lack of real information gives birth to 6 many superstitions, which are related to religion, ancestral literature or eared information. Baby, Mantrap, Snake charmers also add few terrorizing stories to this epic, just to earn their lively hood or make some money.
There are myths attached to each variety of snake, but let’s start with general myths which keeps haunting these beautiful species. 1] All snakes are Venomous. Their bite kills human being. Fact As already discussed, very few snakes are venomous and by proper training & study, identification is not difficult. The venomous snake bites are curable by proper & timely medication. 2] Snakes like to drink milk, as it’s their food. Fact Snakes are from reptile family and are carnivorous. Milk is not snake’s food, and it affects their body system adversely. When we see snakes, available with snake charmers taking sip of milk, the fact as different.
These snakes take milk as water, since they are kept in captive in very treacherous condition, without water & food for long by their owners-the snake charmers. Further we add to their misery by offering them milk as its question of our religious beliefs. 3] Snakes suck milk from cow or buffalos, for this they tie their body around cows or buffalo’s leg to restrict her movement. Fact As already mentioned milk is not snake’s food. Further snake’s teeth are very sharp and their bite is piercing & quite painful which animal can’t bear just like that. In totality the myth is just baseless fiction. ] Snakes like music, specially tune of snake charmer. Fact :- Snakes do not have External ears, hence they can’t hear sound coming from air but they sense vibrations received by their body. Swaying movement of snake to charmers tune is actually it’s attempt to locate the moving object -“gourd flute [Bin/punning]” used by charmer to produce music. This act of snake is its instinct of self defense, that’s why many times snake tries to bite hat object, which we intentionally overlook. 5] Whistling or uttering announcing ‘snake’ word at evening or night time brings snake home. Fact This is myth for sure.
As already explained, snake can’t hear sound propagating through air. Moreover their brain is not developed enough to understand music or human languages. 6] Snakes like fragrance & hence they dwell on flowery plants like Kava’ [pandas], ‘Rat-Rain’ & ‘Chaff’. Fact The snake have ability to smell & they are really very good at it. But their interest is much confined to finding prey & protecting themselves from enemy. The truth is that above mentioned plants are flowery with brilliant fragrance which attracts many insects, butterflies which in turn brings in their predators like lizards, geckos, etc. Which is off course irresistible invitation for snakes to feed & hide, as these plants provide snake, suitable shelter / accommodation too. It doesn’t mean that snakes like fragrance. 7 7] Snake hypnotist or make human being ill by their magical powers. Fact : Snakes are just one type of living species, they do not have any magical powers, neither do they hypnotist anybody. But as they do not have eye lids, heir eyes are open forever without any intermittent blinking. Additionally their split tongue keeps shuttling in & out through a slot provided in closed jaws.
Close view Of this sight is really ministering & fear shocked person may describe this as if he has been hypnotized by snake. 8] Snakes take well planned revenge on person, family or group of people who have knowingly or unknowingly caused any trouble to them or their mates. Fact Snake’s brain is not well developed, it weighs around or less than 1% of their total body weight. Brain mainly controls their body functions. Overall intelligence, Emory including their eye sight is very weak/poor. In this context, to remember person, follow them, chuck down the revenge plan are impossible things for snakes.